The below text, four variants of which exist, is a statemanly masterpeice. Yes, it is selfish to some extent and the Nizam asks them to take care of certain individuals, but apart from the human fallacies of an old man on his death bed, this should be given due consideration.
First, that it behoves the ruler of the Deccan, in his dealings with the Marathas who are the Zemindars of this country, to seek peace and agreement with them. But he should maintain pre-eminent the dignity and prestige of Islam, and never allow them to over-step the bounds; and guard the principles of righteousness and peace; the best principle of all being that conquests in the Deccan must hot be allowed to be made by the armies of these freebooters.
Secondly, that in the destruction of the foundations of mankind, which have been laid by providence, you should be sympathetic, and not consider that they are like so many ears of barley, wheat and maize, which grow anew every year, and in this matter you should exercise utmost caution. Commit the criminal who is guilty of grave offence to the Qazi who is actually there to bear the whole burden of such risky undertaking since he knows his own work best.
Thirdly, that you should pass most of your life in travel, as every day brings you to new destinations and new waters, and you should make a habit of living under tents, as very often the administration of the country and the organisation of all the State affairs lie therein. But you should grant sepoys and camp-followers leave according to their days of service, and post as many of them as is advisable and necessary in such a way that it may not cut short the propagation of their species, and thus make you guilty before God.
Fourthly, that since by the Grace of God, the affairs of your fellow-beings are entrusted to your care, you should, after saying rive daily prayers, offer thanks to God for the sovereignty conferred upon you, and paying heed to its transitory nature, not waste your precious time but with a view to the regulation of all the affairs of State, divide it with full care in such a way as to devote your attention to each work proportionately and not dilly-dally over one undertaking so as to hinder the other. Attention must always be paid to the general principles of administration; the details form part of the whole and should never be lost sight of as they are the part and parcelof the general principles of conduct.
Fifthly, that as the foundations of the ever enduring Kingdom of out Exalted family were laid by the grant of the high rank and office of Sadarat by the Emperor to our late martyred grand-father, Nawab ‘Abid Khan (may he rest in peace and may he receive salvation), it has become incumbent on us, above all else, to respect and hold in honour this high office. May God grant you the good fortune of having the holy men and the saints intercede for you in your need, and may you always be the first in greeting others, in accordance with the Saying of the Prophet; this being the source of untold blessing and strengthening of faith in this world and of great recompense and reward in the next!
Sixthly, that the earth and the sky and the human race, all were created by God, and therefore, it behoves the temporal ruler, the Vice-regent of God upon earth, to meditate deeply on the most perfect and the most magnificent Omnipotence of God, and not arrogate to himself the exclusive ownership of the whole earth. He must also offer thanks to God for making him the trustee of the rights of individuals, and not usurp the inheritance of any one of them, for fear that he may be called to account on the Day of Judgement.
Seventhly, that the Deccan consists of six subahs, each of which was once ruled by a king of its own, had has own nobles, ministers, a host of other officials and an army of hundreds of thousands. Since this country was, in the time of Khuld-Makan (the Emperor Aurangzib), brought under the sway of one ruler, it is right that the ancient families of the realm should be properly looked after, and their members, according to their individual abilities should, without preference, be employed in the service of the Government, but none should have the responsibilities of more than one office at one time lest the work should suffer. Bear this principle in mind, and strongly impress upon your advisers to keep you in close touch with the affairs and the requirements of the people.
Eighthly, that since the State of the Deccan is in a condition of subservience, the respect t0 the kings, who are indeed the shadow of God, should never be overlooked, lest the offenders should stand condemned in the eyes of God and man. Thus when Nadir Shah, with an overwhelming force, reached Delhi and, in his extreme graciousness, cast his eye on me, he offered me personally the sovereignty of the Indian Empire. I at once answered, “By this command no benefit will accrue to either of us, except that I, as a servant, will merit the notoriety of not being true to my salt, and your August self the odium of breach of faith”. He was greatly pleased with my reply and honoured me with his praise. On the next day, he marched off with his army and left me as Mukhtar of my Sovereign.
Ninthly, that for the execufion of the inferior work do not look to the high-born, nor for the execution of the superior work to the low-born, because in both these cases the work of the State will suffer. Wherefore, you may ask, was Puran Chand who was not of a status to be raised to the office of the Diwani, but was in fact of low descent, so raised ? The reason for this was that the nobles around me, not appreciating the blessings conferred upon them thereby, refrained from accepting this office because of the troubles and difficulties involved therein, and in order to mortify the ingrate, and punish their egotism, I considered this appointment as expedient and advisable, for after al1, when the head that directs is sound, the subordinates, whoever they may be, do not much matter, and Puran Chand has, in fact, proved himself to be rather an efficient man. He has, for instance, collected considerably more revenue from the Jagirs than any of his predecessors. My advice is that he should not be displaced for another three years or so.
Tenthly, that as far as possible, it is better not to take upon yourself the initiative in war whether fought for the sake of conquest or of wealth. Pomp and ostentation and natural warlike talents should not be the basis for fomenting disturbances or declaring war, for, verily God does not approve of it, and “none is our guide except God”. As far as in you lies, yoou must try to avoid disputes and enmities, and settle them as they arise, so as to improve matters. But if you find this futile and the other party inimical and arrogantly defiant, then there is no other way left. You should beseech God for His assistance, and taking the field against the enemy, compel him to obedience. You should save yourself and your men to the utmost of your ability, seek the Divine aid for victory and keep a firm stand in the field.
Eleventhly, that since I reached the age of discretion, this has been my personal experience that of all the people of the Deccan, the inhabitants of Burhanpur and Bijapur are the least trustworthy. In India the inhabitants of Gujerat and in the Frontier Province, the people of Kashmir, are considered a bad lot. It is necessary to avoid them and guard against them, and not believe in what they say in season or out of season.
Twelfthly, that you should take into account the resources of income which I possess with an observant eye, and, enquire into their significance, and if you follow in my footsteps, the present expenditure remaining the same, they will suffice for the next seven generations, but if you want to have your own way in this matter, it would not take more than a year or two before everything is squandered away.
Thirteenthly, that do you know why it is necessary to carry about the whole treasury with you and keep it near your person? It is because if, at the time of a tumult or disturbance (may it never occur!) the sepoys demand the arrears of their salaries, although they have hot more than three months’ arrears to claim, in these circumstances, you may be able to order for the payment of their dues at once.
Fourteenthly, although, in my old age, it was better that no such thing happened and that I had not taken unto myself a wife, yet through human frailty, incidentally this did happen and since it is a question of my honour, I enjoin upon my children and their descendants, above all, to have regard for her and help and support her without fail.
Fifteenthly, that the Brahmins of the Deccan, although able, are fit only to be locked up in prison on account of their rebellious attitude, it is my own experience and Hazrat Khuld-Makan (the Emperor Aurangzib) had also observed the same. They have two ring-leaders among them, Moru and Ramdas, who are the upsetters of this Muslim State. I have confined these two in the fort of Ahmednagar, and it must be clearly realised that in their continued confinement lies our well-being. By Pandit Khana is meant the prison where all these people are kept. Since the time of Hazrat ‘Alamgir Padshah, the standing order bas been that wherever a refractory Brahmin is found, he should be taken away forthwith and imprisoned.
Sixteenthly, that you must treat your younger brothers as, your own sons. You must maintain, educate and train them, try, you utmost to raise their rank and status, and make them your friends and sympathisers as they are pillars of strength and source of honour for one another. And Hidayat Muhiuddin Khan is, after al1, our progeny and also a pillar of strength to us. You must win him over with kindness and favour, and not be after him with a view to crush him. You must not 1end your ears to tittle-tattle of the back-biters and slanderers, nor suffer the riff-raff to approach your presence. You must not indulge in what is prohibited by religion.
Seventeenthly, arise now and go quickly; appoint your own men to look after the State concerns, and establish them there.
We leave you in the protection of God; He is your support and may He grant you guidance and light!