Pithapuram Inscription of Velanati Choda Prithviswara

It is surprising to see that the inscription issued in Saka 1108 is nothing more than a mass of names and no achievements. What does this mean? The Velanati Chodas didn’t achieve anything or by the time of Prithviswara, everything is forgotten? That he is ruling from Pithapuram and not Tsandavole itself is an indication for that. Another important aspect here is, Prithviswara assers Velanati Chodas are Chaturhanvaya(Sudra). But, it still takes the name of Kirtivarman as it’s ancestor. If he is Chalukya, what does it make of him? Also note, even as late as 1180, the Velanati Chodas as proud as Vengi Chalukyan vassals and not Chola. The relevant bit dealing with their dynastic succession below. Another interesting name is Gundambika. If she is not a queen, what will her name be?

(Verse 1.) The self-born, ancient, imperishable (Brahma), who was able to produce the living beings and the remainder of the visible world, appeared from the spacious apartment (which was, the lotus on the navel of Hari (Vishnu), who is the husband of Sri, who is the dwelling-place of the Vedasiras, (and) who is engaged in protecting the multitude of worlds, which moves within his own belly.

(V. 2.) As the current of the Ganga from the sole of the foot of Hari, the only lord of the three worlds, — the Chaturthanvaya was produced from the lotus-foot of him (viz, Brahma), which is praised by (the god) Mahendra. In this (race) was born prince Indrasena, who was praised by a wondering crowd of sages (and) who was adopted as son by king (Yudhishthira), the son of (the god) Dharma, who was pleased with (his) conduct in battle.

(V. 3.) Pleased (with him), the son of Dharma, who resembled Akhandala (Indra), bestowed on him a white parasol, a staff made of gold, a silken canopy overhead, one half of (his own) throne which was coveted by all kings, an auspicious lamp which was praised by (i.e. the waving of which was accompanied by) the sounds of varions musical instruments and conches, (and) two chauris of beautiful shape, which were as white as the moon.

(V. 4.) His mighty capital was Kirtipura in Madhyadesa, (a city) which was the only receptacle of the bliss of the enjoyment of all pleasures.

(V. 5.) This king, to whom king Dharma (Yudhishthira) had given all the emblems of a sovereign, ruled for a long time in that city, — adorning the circle of the earth with the splendour of the glittering canopy of (his) great fame, making the minds of all learned men rejoice, (and) surrounded by an army of four members, as the moon by hosts of stars.

(V. 6.) After some lords of the whole earth, born in his race, who subdued the valour of enemies, had passed away, there was born Kirtivarman (I.), a ruler of all men, who was worthy to be praised in the circle of politicians.

(V. 7.) A descendant of his was Mallavarman. His (viz. Mallavarman’s) son (was) Ranadurjaya (I.), at whom, when he stood on the battle-field, enemies could not endure to look.

(V. 8.) To him was born Kirtivarman (II) whose commands were cherished by the heads of all kings. His son was Ranadurjaya (II.)

(Line 18.) His son (was) Kirtivarman (III.).

(V. 9.) His son, the learned, heroic (and) brave prince Malla (I.), who subdued crowds of enemies by many troops of elephants, horses and foot-soldiers, ruled the earth.

(V. 10.) Then, having formally contracted friendship with Trinetra Pallava, this exalted (prince), who knew the rules (of politics, and) who exhibited the prowess of a lion, started for the Southern country (Dakshina-desa) with the desire of conquering (it).

(V. 11.) Having subdued the kings (of) the Gangas, Kalingas, Vangas, Magadhas, Andhras (and) Pulindas, the lords of the Kuntala and the Kerala countries, the Gaudas together with the Pandya king, the (kings of) Bhoja, Marata, Lata and Kataka, (and) having obtained the Shatsahasra-jagati, this heroic (and) truthful king shone like Akhandala (Indra) (after the conquest) of the Daityas.

(V. 12.) (The capital) of this king, called Dhanadapura, was the only dwelling-place of prosperity. It was adorned with an assembly of kings resplendent with wealth of all descriptions, contained heaps of treasures, was filled with pious and learned men, (and therefore) resembled (Alaka) the city of Dhanada (Kubera), which is adorned with an assembly of Yakshas, contains the (nine) treasures, (and) is filled with Siddhas and Vidyadharas.

(V. 13.) In that Dhanadapura, this prince Malla (I.), who resembled Murari (Vishnu), (and) who possessed the auspicious emblems of a sovereign, which had been received from Kunti’s son (Yudhishthira), (and) which had been handed down by the succession of his race, ruled the earth.

(L. 30.) From him (was born) Eriyavarman, (and) from him Kudiyavarman (I.).

(V. 14) From him was born prince Malla (II.), a perpetual sun to the mass of darkness—hostile armies, who broke by his own sword very fierce thunderbolts (or arrow-points), (and) who obtained in the world on account of (his) virtues the surname Piduvaraditya, which is difficult to be acquired even by all the gods (who are) the lords of all the worlds.

(V. 15.) From him was born prince Kudiyavarman (II.), who crushed the insolence, pride and ambition of hostile kings, (and) on whose battle-fields the heavenly nymphs joyfully roamed about in order, to obtain the desired husband.

(V. 16.) At that (time), the ornament of the Chalukya race was Vimaladityadeva, who conferred prosperity on the whole earth, (as the sun causes to unfold the blossoms of) a fine lotus-pond.

(V. 17.) The brave prince Kudiyavarman (II.) rendered assistance for a long time on battle-fields to this conqueror, whose pair of feet was adorned by the great lustre of the jewels – in the crores of diadems on the heads of all kings.

(V. 18.) Then, pleased by (his) assistance, king Vimaladitya bestowed on prince Kudyavarman (II.) the Gudravara-dvaya.

(V. 19.) His (viz. Vimaladitya’s) son Rajaraja could boast of the sovereignty over the whole (world and) was the refuge of the chiefs among kings, (and therefore) resembled (the god) Rajaraja (Kubera) himself, who can boast of all treasures (and) who is the friend of the moon-crested (Siva).

(V. 20.) Then, this glorious Rajaraja, the best of princes, married the beloved daughter of Rajdndra, the virtuous Ammangayamba, who was born from the race of the Sun (and) who was the chief means of (his) obtaining the power over the various parts of the whole world,— just as Hari (Vishnu), the only lord of the three worlds, (married) Sarasija (Lakshmi), who was born from the milk-ocean (and) who is the chief means of obtaining the various kinds of wealth to all men.

(V. 21.) To this couple was born the glorious Kulottunga-Choda, who was able to bear the whole earth that had been conquered by the power emanating from his own arm, (and) to whom the Fortune of kings, forcibly seized by the hand, became attached, just as the light of the moon is absorbed by the rays of the brilliant sun.

(V. 22.) From him was produced the wise (and) brave prince Vira-Choda, who broke the pride of angry hostile kings.

(V. 23.) Ruling the whole earth, the glorious Kulottunga-Choda gave to prince Vira-Choda the Vengi-mancdala.

(V. 24.) Having ruled the earth, prince Kudyavarman (II.) transferred the whole burden of his kingdom to his son.

(V. 25.) From him (viz. Kudyavarman II.) was born prince Erraya, who resembled (Indra) the enemy of Vritra in power; (and) from him came Nanniraja, who destroyed the crowd of enemies.

(V. 26.) From him whose great and pure fame was diffused (everywhere, and) who possessed a kingdom acquired by his own arm, were born five sons whose conduct was pure – named Vedura (I.), Ganda, prince Gonka (I.), Mallaya and Panga.

(V. 27.) The most distinguished of these was prince Gonka (I.) who ruled the Andhra-mandala, though he received orders from (i.e. was tributary to) the glorious Kulottunga-Choda.

(V. 28.) The son of this prince Gonka (I.), whose feet were reddened by the great splendour proceeding from the diadems of the crowd of all kings, was the glorious prince Choda, protected by the pair of whose arms, the earth experienced as great comfort as during (the rule of) king Rama, who was praised by all kings.

(V. 29.) The virtuous son of the wise Ganda, the brother of that prince Gonka (I.), was named Vedura (II.).

(V. 30.) Now, the Vengi-mandala prospered while the virtuous prince Vira-Chdda, who crushed troops of enemies (and) resembled Akhandala (Indra), was ruling the kingdom.

(V. 31.) That brave prince Vedura (II.), whose right hand was fond of seizing the hair of the royal Fortune of the multitude of all hostile kings, rendered assistance to this glorious king Vira-Choda.

(V. 32.) Following for a long time the commands of Vira-Choda, Vedura (II.) defeated in battle the Pandya king together with a troop of vassals.

(V. 33.) Being pleased (with him), that glorious king Vira-Chdda assigned before all the astonished kings to this prince Vedura (II.) who overthrew hostile kings, one half of (his) throne which was coveted by all princes, and moreover gave (to him) the country (desa) called Sindhuyugmantara, which possessed all (kinds of) grain and an abundance of fruit.

(V. 34.) Then the glorious Kulottunga-Choda, whose fame was very great, adopted as son the son of prince Gonka (I.), prince Choda, who destroyed the crowd of hostile kings (and) whose character was blameless, and furnished (him) with the emblems of his own sons.

(V. 35.) Thereon, being pleased (with him), this best of kings gave to (his adopted) son, prince Choda, the Vengi-mandala of Sixteen-thousand (villages).

(V. 36.) This prince Choda, who resembled the terrible Bhima in uprooting crowds of hostile kings, who was as firm as a mountain, whose pair of eyes glittered like lotuses, (and) who was worshipped by all kings, was resplendent, — ruling the prosperous country (dharitri) of Vengi, which yielded the desired fruit, (and) constantly displaying devotion to the ancient Vishnu, who can be reached by meditation.

(V. 37.) His beloved companion (in the enjoyment) of the three objects (of life) was Gundambika, the beauty of whose face resembled the full-moon, who equalled Lakshmi by countless virtues, (and) who deserves ever to be praised at the head of faithful wives.

(V. 38.) To this couple, which resembled Sachi and Vasava (Indra), was born the glorious prince Gonka (II.), who was the means of the safety of all men, (and) whose commands glittered on crores of diadems of kings.

(V. 39.) Verily, when the enemies who had been formerly killed face to face in his battles (and) had reached the state of gods, heard the thunder of the clouds in the sky they mistook it — though they resided in the other world — for the sound of the numerous terrible and great drums of his warlike expeditions, (and) wished him the desired success in (his) undertakings by fervent blessings.

(V. 40.) As though they were pillars containing proclamations of his victories, golden pinnacles (kumbha), established by him whose fame was praised by the gods, shone on the tops of all temples on earth.

(V. 41.) He made of a large quantity of gold a pinnacle for the temple of the god Bhimanatha, which resembled a ladder in the sky, to support the feet of his fame which had started for the abode of Sakra (Indra).

(V. 42.) The kings between the holy mountain of Kalahasti and the Mahendrachala (mountain) (were) the servants of this virtuous prince Gonka (II.)

(V. 43.) His lawful wife (was) Sabbambika, who was adorned by virtues which deserved to be praised by the three worlds, whose form (made her appear) specially beautiful among women, who was a very embodiment of the earth herself (in patienoe, and) the number of whose good deeds was countless.

(V. 44.) To this couple was born Vira-Rajdndra-Choda, who resembled a partial incarnation of Sulapani (Siva) in conquering the cities of enemies, whose pure virtues were praised by the assembly of scholars, who was the birth-place of sciences, whose mere name (was) a charm which, (if) pronounced, destroyed the crowd of all enemies, (and) who granted to supplicants much more than (their) requests.

(Y. 45.) Just as the first pitcher-born (Agastya) (had dried up) the water of the ocean, — he dried up the whole of that lake (saras) which had been formerly dug by the gods (and) which was full of rows of waves, shaken by shoals of crocodiles and pathina (fishes) which collided with the water that was whirled round as terribly as the ocean, and quickly killed Bhima, just as Raghava (Rama) (had killed) Ravana who terrified the worlds.

(V. 46.) Being always covered by his fame which was as white as the intense splendour of a cluster of full-blown water-lilies, the Earth appeared to be adorned by a parasol of pearls.

(V. 47.) He made golden utensils for the worship in the temple of Bhimesvara, gave a golden aureola (prabha) (set) with masses of splendid gems, and surpassed the attendants of Indra and the other (gods) in merit by joyfully covering the god Bhimanatha with a huge mass of gold (and) placing him on a pedestal (pitha) of pure gold.

(V. 48.) To the crescent-crested (Siva) who resides at Daksharama, he gave an ornamental arch (makara-torana), made of a mass of splendid gold.

(V. 49.) The wife of this best of princes was Akkambika, who resembled a flash of lightning walking on earth, who greatly delighted good men, as the sickle of the moon, (and) who was the gem of womankind.

(V. 50.) As the god Kumara himself to Siva and Siva, there was born to this couple prince Gonka (III.), who was thoroughly qualified for the protection of the whole world, who was skilled in all royal sciences, (and) the kings of whose enemies, not finding on the whole earth room for placing (their) feet even for an instant, took up (their) abode in the sky under forms suitable for this (purpose).

(V. 51.) The Kalpaka tree remained a long time in heaven, evidently because it perceived that on earth the noble beloved son of Rajendra-Chdda, who destroyed hostile kings, was granting the objects of (their) desires to the crowd of supplicants.

(Vv. 52 and 53.) His wife was Jayambika, who, as the elixir of life, was always ready to afford protection to all men ; whose conduct on earth good men pronounce (to be) tfae only standard code for all virtuous women ; who was born, for the welfare of the worlds, from the race of the kings of the Parvatapara-mahi ; who was devoted to the lotus-feet of Hari (Vishnu) ; who was the means of obtaining every prosperity ; (and who therefore) resembled Padmalaya (Lakshml), who was bom from the milk-ooean, is the wife of Vishnu, (and) the goddess of prosperity.

(V. 54.) To Vishnu who fulfilled the desires of Kunti, (and) who dwelt in the town called Sripitha (i.e. at Sripithapura), she built an assembly-hall (asthana-mandapa), which was to enjoy (?) a permanent income (bhoga), (and which was adorned) with pillars which bore splendid ornaments (and) were as lovely as sapphires.

(V. 55.) Having built to him a temple which was adorned with an enclosure (prakara) and gate-ways (gopura), (and) having duly set up (an image of) Kamalalaya (Lakshmi), she obtained the desired rewards by propitiating Achyuta (Vishnu) together with her (viz. Lakshmi) by worship.

(V. 56.) She made manifest to men the beautiful name Hemangs — which may be learnt from the essence of all Vedas (sruti)— of the highest being which has assumed the shape of the lord of Srisimhagiri in order to remove the distress of (his) devotees.

(V. 57.) The many precious golden pinnacles (kumbha) which she placed on the tops— that resembled the peaks of mountains of shining crystal— of foam-white temples, from whichissued a halo of light (and) which were praised by gods, verily produced the semblance of the sun resting on the top of the silver mountain (Kailasa).

(V. 58.) To this couple was born the glorious Prithivisvara, who,— as the god (Vishnu) himself who is the husband of Sri and of the Earth, — causes the preservation of the world, (and) whose rise is being praised by men. While this king, who has destroyed all enemies, rules the earth, men are unable to understand even the etymology of words meaning ‘ enemy ‘ and ‘thief.’

(V. 59.) Quickly enveloped by the very pure fame of this king, this universe looks exactly as though it were placed in a case of silver purified by fire.

(V. 60.) It is surely through shame on perceiving him who is alone able to bear the whole earth, whose right hand is moistened (by the water poured out) at gifts which are continually being performed, (and who therefore) resembles a mast elephant whose agile trunk is moistened by the ichor which is continually oozing out,— that the elephants of the quarters have become white.

(V. 61.) He whose fame was widely spread, eagerly granted to learned men villages in which beautiful and splendid corn was bent by the burden of various fruits ; caused to be dug, in every country, tanks resembling oceans (and) filled with water which was perfumed by the flowers of groves on (their) banks ; and continually gave heaps of wealth, with kind words, to crowds of scholars alone.

(V. 62.) Having heard the loud roar of the drums proclaiming (his) start for war, the crowds of his enemies quickly leave (their) countries, flee in (all) directions with eyes trembling with fear, and roam about, thinking constantly :— ” (Is this) the thunder of the cloud of destruction, or the sound of huge piercing arrows, or the howling of the wind at the end of the Kalpa ? “

(V. 63.) Though equal (to him) in depth, in keeping within bounds, in greatness, and in wealth of gems, the ocean whose surface is begrimed with floating stains of mud (and) whose nature is brackish, did not reach the standard of him who equalled (Yudhishtira) the son of Dharma in justice, whose appearance was brilliant, (and) who was daily worshipped by all men.

(V. 64.) Victorious, like the sun, is on the circle of the earth the glorious prince Prithvisvara who always adorns the path of the good, whose rise is prayed for by the gods, who grants the desires of devoted servants, who fills the whole earth with the unequalled splendour of his majesty, (and) who delights the whole world by the endless (gifts of) his bands, (as the sun by his rays causes to unfold the flowers of) a lotus-pond.

(Vv. 65 and 66.) At the auspicious time of the Mesha-samkranti in the Saka year measured by the elephants (8), the sky (0), the moon (1) and the unit (1), (i.e. 1108), the mother of this great (king and) the beloved queen of prince Gonka (III.), the virtuous (and) charitable Jayamamba, who, as the shade of the celestial tree, granted the objects of the desires of applicants, joyfully gave to the god Vishnu, whose nature may be known from the Vedanta who is the abode of Prosperity, (and) who always resides in the heads (Siras) of all Vedas (Sruti) (viz. to the god) Madhava who abides at Sripithapura, an excellent village in the country (desa) of Prol[u]nandu, called Navakhandavada, the ornament of the whole circle of the earth, resplendent with paddy-fields, (and) adorned with masses of various fruits.

(Line 139.) In the Saka year 1108, at the time of the Mesha-samkranti, — Jayamadevi, the great queen of the glorious Mahamandalesvara Kulottunga-Manma-Gonkaraja, the son of the glorious Mahdmandalesvara Velananti- Kulottunga-Rajendra-Chodayaraja, gave to the god Kunti-Madhavadeva at Sripithapuram the whole village called Navakhandavada in Prolunandu, together with houses, fields and gardens, for burnt offerings, oblations and worship, for daily and periodical rites, monthly festivals and annual festivals, for various expenses (bhaga) on account of singing, dancing, music, etc., (to last) as long as the moon and the sun.

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