Viswanatha Nayaka, for whatever reasons, divided his kingdom into 72 Palem(district)s, each headed by a Palegadu/Palayagadu/Polygar. Lifting directly from the Kakatiya administration(either they themselves are Kakatiya Nayak descendants or had someone close to them like the Sri Kalahasti-Chengalpattu-Vandavasi Velama Nayaks who are descended from Kakatiya Nayaks. After all, he is from the Vijayanagar Court and would have heard about it anywhere), Tirumala Nayaka complemented the 72 Polygars by 72 bastions in Madurai fort, each assigned to each Polygar. The Nayak himself being Telugu and the fall of Gandikota brought loads of Telugu warriors of note into Tamil territory, it can be safely assumed that the Polygars were predominantly Telugu and Tamil. The noise made during the times of Puli Thevar and Veerapandya Katta Bommanna made them disproportionately popular and only their subdue gave any meaning to the British rule in the area.
Below is the list of the Palems. My list is 74 in number – obviously, two are rouge entries and this can serve as a basis for someone to dig deeper. Another thing to note is that this list gives us an approximate limit of Tirumala Nayaka’s domains with regard to Gingee/Thanjavur/Mysore and Kerala.

Alagapuri
Alangulam
Ariyalur
Athanakarai
Ayilore
Aykudi
Bodinayakanur
Daramangalam
Doddappa Nayakanur
Elambaram
Elayirampannai
Emukalapuram
Erasakkanayakanur
Ettayapuram
Gavandankottai
Idyakottai
Iluppur
Kachchaikatti
Kadalkudi
Kadambur
Kambam
Kannividi
Karipattu
Kollapatti/Kollalarayadi/Kollamkondan
Kulappanayakanur/Nilakottai
Kulathur
Kurukkavetti
Kuruvikkulam
Maduvoor
Malayalam Nanjinattu Rasa
Mamparai
Maniyatchi
Mannarkottai
Maranathur
Marungapuri
Mavilodai
Memandal
Naduvukurichchi
Nagalapuram
Natham
Neduvayal
Neikottanseval
Palani
Panchalankuruchchi
Pavali
Perambr
Periakulam
Pillaimulungi
Pudukkottai Tondaiman
Rajapalayam
Ramagiri
Ramanathapuram Sethupathy
Sennilaikudi
Sethur
Singampatti
Sirumalai
Sivagangai Udaya Thevar
Sivagiri
Sokkampatti
Surandai
Talaivankottai
Talamaru
Tali
Thavasimedai
Thevaram
Thogaimalai
Thottayankottai
Turaiyur
Urkadu
Utthappa Nayakanur
Uttrumalai
Velliyakundam
Virasilapatti
Virupakshi

Advertisements