Discovered in 1905, these plates are one of the best indicators of how the Pallava Empire ended.

Well, like any other kings, they linked themselves to one of the main dynasties of Puranic India. In their case, it’s the Ikshvakus – Chola is the son of Dushyanta. A few names, and then a break after the first kings of Dwapara Yuga. Then, we get to someone by name Perunatkilli to whom Karikala Chola is born. Note that Karikala is the god of death(Kala) to the elephants(kari) of the elephants of his enemies as well as well as the Kali. Note that burnt leg is not at all mentioned. All his credits are mentioned, but not that of Himalayas. Another few generations pass till we reach Kochchengannan. Suddenly, they jump to Vijayalaya. This clearly mentions that this is a story and there is no history associated to that. Even after that, the king list is chaotic. What is the meaning of all this? How much of this should be considered as to be fact and how much fiction?

(V. 40.) At the end of the Dvapara (-age) was born in the family of this head-jewel of kings a conqueror of all hostile kings named Visvajit.

(V. 41.) In his race was born Perunatkilli who was the receptacle of all sciences, the abode of (the goddess of) Prosperity, who was worshipped by the diadems of all the rulers of the earth which were set with rows of precious gems.

(V. 42.) In this (king’s) family was born he, the leader of all the lords of the earth, the foremost of the great on account of his virtues, the king who renovated (the town of) Kanchi with gold, who had established his glorious fame by constructing embankments of the Kaveri (river) and whom (people) called Kalikala because (he) was (the god of) death to the elephants (kari) (of his enemies) as also to the Kali (-age).

(V. 43.) In the family of that (king) of extensive glory was born the emperor Kochchengannan who bore on his arm the earth (extending) as far as the Lokaloka mountain, whose tremulous eyes were as blue as the petal of the blue lily (and) the bondage of (whose) spider-body and cut off by (his) devotion of Sambhu (i.e., Siva) the conqueror of (the demon) Tripura.

(V. 44.) In the illustrious family of that (king) was born Vijayalaya of praiseworthy prowess, whose footstool was battered by the diadems in the rush for precedence (ahamahamika) of kings desirous of prostrating.

The end of Pallavas comes as thus. It is said that Aditya killed Aparajita and married his wife. If this is the case, the story is not from here, but from somewhere else. Or, is it an extrapolation of this story? Note the name Adityavarman in the lines of Pallava rulers (same was used as Cholavarman and Rajakesarivarman) –  Does this indicate his lowly position and no link to the Cholas whatsoever? The reality is that Aditya is a vassal of Aparajita of unknown origin and turned against his master who recognized his prowess at an opportune moment. Even, the language used is troublesome – fulfilled the object of his desire. Does this mean his father was planted? Or is he another renegade Pallava prince, possibly of the Nripatunga line, who named himself Chola but was shamed of using Pallava because of the treachery?

(V. 47.) (After him), (his) son king Adityavarman, the asylum of the wise, a Dhishana (Brihaspati) (in learning), energetic, always bent upon removing evil and adhering (himself) to the path of the righteous, protected the earth.

(V. 49.) Having conquered in battle the Pallava (king) Aparajita who possessed a brilliant army though (he was in name) aparajita (i.e., the unconquered) he (i.e., Aditya) took possession of his (i.e., Aparajita’s) beloved country and thus fulfilled the object (of his desire).

Looking at all this, the Sanskrit part of the grant is a figment of imagination of a court poet of the Cholas who designed this story for them based on the platform which was already built.

Translation of the Sanskrit text(reference –

(Verse 1.) May bashful Bhavani (Parvati) who, seeing her (own) from (reflected) in the gem on the hood of the king of serpents (which forms) the necklace of Srikantha (Siva), (and) (suspecting) it (to be) another woman, looks askance, excited and jealous, at her husband who, with a heart all-desirous of (her) embrace, prays (for it) bowing at (her) feet, grant you uninterrupted prosperity!

(V. 2.) May that pond in which the royal swan of heroism sports ; the sun (which delights) the lotuses (viz.,) the learned ; the sole caravan-leader of the vast crowd of travelers on the two routes (viz.,) (the temporal), where the results (of actions) are seen, and (the transcendental), where the results are not seen ; the supreme ruler of all royal races ; the ocean where the multitude of gems (viz.,) all virtues, has its birth ; — the Chola family — rule forever the circle of the earth, redressing the grievances of all !

(V. 3.) The letters (of the alphabet) limited in number are only fifty ; (whereas) the virtues of (the kings of) the Solar race are resplendent beyond number.  How can I describe these (virtues) with those (letters) ? Oh ! Mother Sarasvati ! secure for me (the help of) other letters (lipi) (also).

(V. 4.) The eye of the three worlds was the Sun from whom sprang the sprouts of all (families of) kings.  From him (i.e., the Sun) was born by concentration (manana), Manu, the first of kings whose name became (thus) conformable to (its) meaning.

(V. 5.) Great Ikshvaku was born (as) his son ; of him, in great battles the enemies of gods (i.e., the danavas) were greatly afraid.  The three worlds, though completely immersed I the ocean of his spotless fame, (still) enjoyed extreme delight.

(V. 6.) (Then) came forth his son, the heroic Vikukshi, who was the husband of the youthful Earth adorned by the girdle (viz.,) the waves of all (surrounding) oceans, (and) whose lotus feet were resplendent by the luster (proceeding from) the diadems of many crowds of bowing kings.

(V. 7.) To him was born as son the king named Puranjaya, whose abundant prowess and heroism were well known and the expansive white parasol of whose blooming fame, having spread over the whole surface of the entire universe, was (still found to be) in excess.

(V. 5.) Great Ikshvaku was born (as) his son ; of him, in great battles the enemies of gods (i.e., the danavas) were greatly afraid.  The three worlds, though completely immersed I the ocean of his spotless fame, (still) enjoyed extreme delight.

(V. 8.) This mine of prowess, because (he) sat upon the hump of Hari (i.e., Indra) who had assumed the form of a bull, (and) killed in battle the warriors of the enemies of gods, bore on this account the name Kakutstha (i.e., one who sits on the hump).

(V. 9.) (People) say that his son Kakshivat was a king of unopposed power, whose fame was sung by the celestial singers (gandharva) in the houses of gods ; and the light of the moon (viz.,) the reflection of his spotless white parasol, extinguished the fatigue (of the people) on the surface of (this) earth.

(V. 10.) His son was Aryyama, the lord of the earth, who obtained the Lakshmi (of victory) by stirring the ocean of his enemy (forces) with the churning rod of his mountain (like) arm ; (and) whose greatness was pre-eminently extolled.

(V. 11.) In his family was born the king (named) Analapratapa, whose magnanimity was well known in the world, and the fire of whose prowess sprang forth from his tree (like) shoulders rubbing against the bow-string, and destroyed (his) enemies.

(V. 12.) The full-moon (in swelling) the ocean of his (i.e., Analapratapa’s) family was Vena, the foremost of kings.  His son was king Prithu, whose prosperity was great, who was the chief of rulers, (and) who, like heroism incarnate for putting down injustice  (in this world), came forth (clad) in mail, wearing a diadem of gems and holding a bow of matchless strength with the string (drawn) and the arrow (set) from Vena’s right arm which was churned (for that purpose) by chiefs of ascetics.

(V. 14.) In this family was born a king who, having killed the demon Dhundhu of enormous strength, (bore) on earth the name Dhundhumara. This king also (having become) the sole resort of virtues, ruled the whole earth.

(V. 15.) In that family was born king Yuvanasva who had no second (to him) in austerity, celebrity, truth and (other) good qualities ; all people well understood his prowess to be a rampart-wall in protecting the whole world, ever increasing on all sides.

(V. 16.) The son of that (king), whose greatness was widespread (and) who was respected by (those) who were (themselves) deserving of respect, was Mandhatri, the master of courage, wisdom, love, prosperity and learning.  (He), the birth-place of mercy, ruled for a long time the earth as far as the Lokaloka mountain as (if he were) the embodiment of the protective power itself.

(V. 17.) Begotten (of him) was his son (known as) king Muchukunda, who kept himself awake in the duty of protecting the camp of the army of gods which was attacked by the forces of powerful demons ; who was engrossed in the sleep obtained (as boon) through the grace of the lord of gods (i.e., Indra) and whose eyes, opening in anger, immediately consumed the crafty demon Kalayavana and (thus) pleased Mukunda (Vishnu).

(V. 18.) In that family was also born he of immense prosperity who was a store-house of celebrated heroism, whose name was known (to the world) as Valabha, who offered up (his) enemies as moths to the flames of (his) arrows and founded (the city of) Valabhi.

(V. 19.) To him was born (the king) named Prithulaksha, who, at request of crowds of gods and demons, set whirling in the ocean the huge mountain Mandara for (the purpose of) securing nectar.

(V. 20.) To him was born a son (known as) Parthivachudamani, who was a mine of power and who, while Mukunda (Vishnu) was giving the gods a drink of nectar, destroyed the army of the demons (who were disturbing).

(V. 21.) Dirghabahu, the foremost of the virtuous and a jewel of that race, then became the paramount sovereign.  Learned men say that the fire of his prowess quenched  the grievances of the virtuous.

(V. 22.) He, king Chandrajit, the parental home of the goddess of victory, conquered the unconquerable army of the enemies of gods and (also) the Moon who had carried away the wife of his teacher (Brihaspati).

(V. 23.) His son Samkriti became the emperor at the close of the Krita age.  That he highly reddened (i.e., pleased) the earth with the (white) rays of the moon of (his) fame is (indeed) strange.

(V. 24.) A jewel in that family was the king known as Panchapa the victorious, who, by the excellence of his body, surpassed the five-arrowed (Cupid) and vied (in prosperity) with the lord of the heaven (i.e.,Indra).

(V. 25.) In his family was (born) Satyavrata who, being ordered by (his) father to protect the horse which was let loose for the horse-sacrifice, conquered, by (virtue of his superior) strength, Kasiraja, the king of Varanasi (i.e., Benares).

(V. 26.) (Seeing that he) conquered Rudra in a battle where a multitude of arrows proceeding from the bows of opposite parties struck (one another) and produced flames, the assemblage of gods proclaimed, “thou art Rudrajit (the conqueror of Rudra).”

(V. 27.) The jewel of that prosperous family was king Sibi, the son of Usinara, who, out of compassion in protecting the pigeon which was threatened (to be killed) by a falcon, gave up attachment for his own body.  An ornament in his family was king Marutta, who was famous in (this) world.  With the riches that were used and left over (as balance, after the performance) of his sacrifice, the Pandavas performed (their) sacrifice.

(V. 28.) (People) say that Dushyanta was an ornament of the race of this (king).  His son was Daushyanti (i.e., born of Dushyanta) Bharata. To him was born a son named Chola after whom the Solar race on this earth became illustrious.

(V. 29.) Him (i.e., the king Chola), learned men described as the generous lord of gods (i.e., Indra) who incarnated on earth (on seeing that) the glory of his own (i.e., Amaravati) was humbled by the varied and lustrous riches of the Chola country.

(V. 30.) Cholavarman’s son was Rajakesarivarman (‘the lion among kings’) who split asunder with (his) nails (viz., crooked knives) the elephants (viz., crooked knives) the elephants (viz., his enemies) and (was) the cage (wherein resided the goddess) of prosperity.

(V. 31.) Rajakesarin’s son was king Parakesarin by whose fire-like anger the enemies’ forces were consumed.

(V. 32.)  Thenceforward these two names indicative of (their) suzerainty were alternately borne by the Chola (kings) in the order of their coronation.

(V. 33.) Parakesarin’s son was king Chitraratha ; his son (was) Chitrasva ; to him (was born) king Chitradhanvan.

(V. 35.) Having come to know that king Bhagiratha engrossed in penance brought down (from heaven) the river of gods (i.e., Ganga) (to earth), this king (also) desirous to fame brought her (i.e., Ganga) to his dominions under the name Kaverakanyaka (i.e., Kaveri).

(V. 36.) In that family was (born) Suraguru who was the hereditary abode of the maiden, the Lakshmi of victory.  This king having conquered by his glory the god of Death in his own territory acquired the name Mrityujit.

(V. 37.) In his race was born king Chitrartha called Vyaghraketu from his banner-cloth bearing (the figure of) a tiger, who was a store of great heroism and who wore as an ornament on his head the flowers of the dhataki (Grislea Tomentosa).

(V. 38.) The Treta-age having come to a close, a son of this king known as Narendrapati became the ruler.  The diadems of (subordinate) kings dropped down their gems ; (because their) fastenings had become loosened by the constant rolling at his footstool.

(V. 39.) From him was produced the head-jewel of the powerful Solar race, (king) Vasu, who was the cause of the destruction of the demons (and) who (known) by the significant surname of Uparichara moved in any direction he liked in a celestial car which was presented (to him) by the lord of gods (i.e.,Indra).

(V. 40.) At the end of the Dvapara (-age) was born in the family of this head-jewel of kings a conqueror of all hostile kings named Visvajit.

(V. 41.) In his race was born Perunatkilli who was the receptacle of all sciences, the abode of (the goddess of) Prosperity, who was worshipped by the diadems of all the rulers of the earth which were set with rows of precious gems.

(V. 42.) In this (king’s) family was born he, the leader of all the lords of the earth, the foremost of the great on account of his virtues, the king who renovated (the town of) Kanchi with gold, who had established his glorious fame by constructing embankments of the Kaveri (river) and whom (people) called Kalikala because (he) was (the god of) death to the elephants (kari) (of his enemies) as also to the Kali (-age).

(V. 43.) In the family of that (king) of extensive glory was born the emperor Kochchengannan who bore on his arm the earth (extending) as far as the Lokaloka mountain, whose tremulous eyes were as blue as the petal of the blue lily (and) the bondage of (whose) spider-body and cut off by (his) devotion of Sambhu (i.e., Sivathe conqueror of (the demon) Tripura.

(V. 44.) In the illustrious family of that (king) was born Vijayalaya of praiseworthy prowess, whose footstool was battered by the diadems in the rush for precedence (ahamahamika) of kings desirous of prostrating.

(V. 45.) He, the light of the Solar race, took possession of (the town) Tanchapuri (i.e., Tanjore) which was picturesque to the sight, was as beautiful as Alaka (the chief town of Kubera), had reached the sky (by its high turrets) and the white-wash of (whose) mansions (appeared like) the scented cosmetic (applied to the body), just as he would seize (by the hand) his own wife who has beautiful eyes, graceful curls, a cloth covering (her body), and sandal paste as (white as) lime, in order to sport with her.

(V. 46.) Having next consecrated (there) (the image of) Nisumbhasudani whose lotus-feet are worshipped by gods and demons, (he) by the grace of that (goddess) bore just (as easily) as a garland (the weight of) the (whole) earth resplendent with (her) garment of the four oceans.

(V. 47.) (After him), (his) son king Adityavarman, the asylum of the wise, a Dhishana (Brihaspati) (in learning), energetic, always bent upon removing evil and adhering (himself) to the path of the righteous, protected the earth.

(V. 48.) The earth having sought refuge under the shadow of his matchless white parasol did not experience on any occasion, the pain caused by the heat (of misery).

(V. 49.) Having conquered in battle the Pallava (king) Aparajita who possessed a brilliant army though (he was in nameaparajita (i.e., the unconquered) he (i.e., Aditya) took possession of his (i.e., Aparajita’s) beloved country and thus fulfilled the object (of his desire).

(V. 50.) His son was Parantaka (i.e., the destroyer of (his) enemies, whose name was full of meaning, who was a bee at the two lotus-feet of Purantaka (i.e., Siva) and who was as (it were) the embodiment of the boundless joy of (his) subjects.

(V. 51.) Encircled by the fire of whose prowess the Pandya king at once entered the sea, as if intent upon quenching that affliction in haste, abandoning (his) royal glory and (his) hereditary dominion.

(V. 52.) The fire of whose anger after burning (his) enemies quenched not in the waters of the sea (but) subsided (only) by the tears of the wives of the Simhala (king) who was cut to pieces and killed by (his) weapons.

(V. 53.) He built for Purari (Siva), who was before (this) on the silver mountain (Kailasa), a golden house called Dabhra-Sabha and (thus) put to shame his (i.e., Siva’a) friend, the lord of wealth (Kubera) by (his) immense riches.

(V. 54.) His son Rajaditya defeated Krishnaraja in battle and went to heaven. His brother named Gandaraditya, whose feet were worshipped by the rows of diadems (worn on the heads) of the rulers of the earth, became king.

(V. 55.)   Arindama (i.e., the destroyer of enemies) bearing indeed a name which was full of meaning, became the best of kings; the dense forests became a abode of kings, who fled from his anger.

(V. 56.) From him was born the king known as Parantaka who received glowing prowess from the sun, profoundness from the ocean, great heroism from Hari (Vishnu) the abode of strength, an incomparable body from Kama (cupid), prosperity from Vishnu and from the moon a splendor pleasant to the eye.

(V. 57.) The mass of people believe this king to be Manu, who, out of love for the (good) conduct which was set forth by himself, has come to the earth once again to establish his law which had become lax under the influence of the Kali (age).

(v. 58.) While that emperor Sundara was ruling the circle of the earth, the syllable  ha (indicative of sorrow) was heard by people only in words like hara.

(V.  59.) This (king), who was almost (the god of) Death of the Kali (age), considered the circle of the earth to be a more becoming jewel to (his) two serpent-(like) shoulders than golden armlets brilliant with flawless stones (gems).

(V. 60.) The courtyard about the portals (of his palace) was covered with the dust of gold-pieces which (having) dropped down during the great confusion (ensuing on the occasion) of (the giving away of) unlimited charities, were crushed to powder by the hoofs of horses.

(V. 61.) His son Arunmolivarma was born (like another) Murari (Vishnu) supporting on his two arms, long like the prasa (weapon), the glorious (goddess) Sri (Lakshmi) who closely embraced the whole  of (his) body, and bearing on the palms (of his hands), the sankha and chakra in the form of auspicious marks.

(V. 62.) The eyes of people fully delighted in the extraordinary moon (viz., his body) (which maintained) great pure luster in both the fortnights (paksha) [or was of pure descent on both sides (maternally and paternally)] and presented a very big (i.e., complete), orb (always) [or had an extensive kingdom to rule].

(V. 63.) The Naga-women danced on the occasion of the birth of this emperor saying “this (king) in all probability shall relieve our husband (i.e., Adisesha) of the weight of the earth on his head.”

(V. 64.) King Sundara-Chola of great prowess went to heaven, requested (as it were) by the assemblage of gods to protect (it) immediately from the attack of the armies of demons and demi-gods.

(V. 65.) “I am determined to follow my lord Sundara (i.e., the beautiful) before (he) is coveted by the celestial damsels,” so saying zealously, his devoted queen the glorious Vanavanmahadevi, a very Arundhati in (her) manifold good qualities, abandoned her own people and followed him as [night] the day to heaven, afraid as it were of the allurement (of her husband) by celestial nymphs and (desirous consequently of) being near (him) even there.

(V. 67.) After him, his son named Aditya ruled the earth.  He, who excelled the mind-born (Cupid in his (superior) beauty, killed the Pandya king in battle.

(V. 68.) Having deposited in his (capital) town the lofty pillar of victory (viz.,) the head of the Pandya king, Aditya disappeared (from this world) with a desire to see heaven.

(V. 69.) (Though) requested by the subjects (to occupy the Chola throne), in order to destroy the persistently blinding darkness of the powerful Kali (age), Arunmolivarman who understood the essence of royal conduct, desired not the kingdom for himself even in (his) mind, while his paternal uncle coveted his (i.e., Arunmolivarman’s) dominions.

(V. 70.) Having ascertained by the marks (on his body) that Arunmoli was the lotus-eyed (Vishnu) himself, the able protector of the three worlds that had incarnated (on earth), Madhurantaka installed him in the office of heir-apparent, and (himself) bore the burden of (ruling) the earth.

(V. 71.) Applying (his) mind to (the devotion of) Sarva (Siva), utilizing (his) wealth in the act of performing His worship, (employing) all (his) retinue in the construction of houses (i.e., temples) for Him, and directing (his) subjects to (regularly) perform His festive processions, (showing his) wrath (only) in the killing of enemies and (distributing his) riches among virtuous Brahmanas, that king (Madhurantaka) bore on (his) board shoulder, the (weight of the) earth.

(V. 72.) Arunmolivarman was himself then installed in the administration of the kingdom (as if) to wash away the stain of the earth caused by the Kali (-age) of his body (bathed by the water during the ceremony of installation) ; and the ends of the quarters heavily roared with the tumultuous sounds of the war-drums, rows of bells and bugles, kettle drums, tambourines and conches.

(V. 73.) (Surely) the milky ocean formed itself into a circle in the shape of (his) white parasol in the sky and came to see his (own) daughter Sri (Lakshmi) resting on the chest of this (king).

(V. 74.) Indeed ! the ladies of (the lords of) the quarters, who were taken captives during the digvijaya(i.e., the conquest of the quarters), rendered (their) service to this victorious monarch with chowries (made) of (his) fame, lustrous as the shining moon-beams.

(V. 75.) Although, in the tulabhara (ceremony), the king was weighed against gold pieces in the scales (tula), he was still (founda-tula (i.e., unequalled).  (Hence), it is difficult to comprehend the greatness of the great.

(V. 76.) This king —  a pile of matchless prosperity, majesty, learning, strength of arm, prowess, heroism and courage —  invaded and conquered in order, (all) the quarters commencing with the direction of Trisanku (i.e., the south).

(V. 77.) The moon as if to afford protection to the Pandya king born in his own family, and thinking (unto himself) “I am also a raja (king),” became the white parasol of this (king) who was intent upon conquering that (southern) quarter.

(V. 78.) (King) Amarabhujanga being seized, (other) dissolute kings, whose rule was secretly mischievous being much afraid of him at heart, wished to hide (themselves) somewhere (just like serpents with sliding crooked bodies).

(V. 79.) The commandant of (this) ornament of the Solar race, the hereditary home of (the goddess of) victory, captured (the town of) Vilinda whose moat was the sea, whose extensive ramparts were glorious and high (and) which was impregnable to the enemy warriors.

(V. 80.) The lord of the Raghavas (i.e., Rama) constructing a bridge across the water of the ocean with (the assistance of) able monkeys, killed with great difficulty the king of Lanka (i.e., Ravana) with sharp-edged arrows ; (but) this terrible General of that (king Arunmolivarman) crossed the ocean by ships and burnt the Lord of Lanka (Ceylon).  Hence Rama is (surely) surpassed by this (Chola General).

(V. 81.) This is strange that though Satyasraya fled to avoid misery from the attack of his (i.e.,Arunmolivarman’s) ocean-like army (still) misery found a (permanent) abode in him.  But this is not strange, that his flight is due to (i.e., is the result of his) birth from Taila.[6]

(V. 82.) “Since Rajaraja, an expert in war, of the (same) name as myself, has been killed by a powerful club, I shall, therefore, kill that Andhra (king) called Bhima though (he may be) faultless.”  So saying he (Arunmolivarman) killed him (i.e., Bhima) with a mace.

(V. 83.) Having conquered the country,— the creation of Rama (i.e., Parasurama) whose beloved vow was to annihilate the whole of the Kshatra (race),— (the country) which was adorned with pious people, was matchless and inaccessible on account of the mountains and the ocean, he caused abundant joy to all kings that held a bow (in their hands), and made) his commands shine on the rows of the diadems of all rulers of the earth.

(V. 84.) Having subdued in battle the Ganga, Kalinga, Vanga, Magadha, Aratta, Odda, Saurashtra, Chalukya and other kings, and having received homage from them, the glorious Rajaraja —  a rising sun in opening the groups of lotuses viz., thefaces of crowds of learned men, ruled the earth whose girdle is the water of all oceans.

(V. 85.) To this ruler of men was born a son, Madhurantaka whose limbs bore all the (distingusishing) marks of earth-rulers, who resembled a different Manmatha (mind-born) who had defied the angry roar of Hara (Siva).

(V. 86.) Wonder ! While he of great prowess, was protecting this earth ever following the ways of the good, the eyes of his wives openly transgressed the path (laid down by) the sruti (i.e., the Vedas).

(V. 87.) The fierce Sun, viz., the prowess of Madhurantaka, stood pervading the whole space (comprised) within the circuit of the quarters.  It is strange that (this Sun) reduced to ashes all the kings who stood aloof (from him) (i.e., those who were his enemies) but relieved the affliction of all kings who were near (i.e., those who sought refuge in him).

(V. 88.) Strange it is that the disc of the moon (raja-mandala,  the circle of kings) setting in the waters of the ocean of his sword, does not rise (again).  This is still more strange that (subsequently) it (i.e., the disc of the moon) continues to remain in the sky with (its) brilliant lustre.

(V. 89.) (This) famous (and) heroic lord of men intent upon doing meritorious deeds with large quantities of money acquired by (the strength of) his own arm, turned his attention to the conquest of the quarters (digvijaya) backed up by a powerful army.

(V. 90.) Accordingly, he the unequalled king Uttama-Chola first started to the (southern) quarter marked by the (the asterism) Trisanku, with a desire to conquer the Pandya king, after having arranged for the protection of his own capital.

(V. 91.) The commander of forces (dandanatha) of this crest-jewel of the Solar race (i.e., Madhurantaka), struck the Pandya king who had a powerful army.  (And the Pandya leaving his own country which was the residence of (the sage) Agastya, from fear (of Madhurantaka), sought refuge in the Malaya hill.

(V. 92.) (Then) the politic son of Rajaraja took possession of the lustrous pure pearls which looked like the seeds (out of which grew) the spotless fame of the Pandya king.

(V. 93.) Having placed there his own son, the glorious Chola-Pandya, for the protection of his (i.e., the Pandya’s) country, the light of the Solar race started for the conquest of the western region.

(V. 94.) Having heard of the humiliation which the rulers of the earth were subjected to by (the sage) Bhargava (i.e., Parasurama) on the battlefield, (and) not being able to meet him (i.e., Bhargava) (in battle) on earth, that proud king (Madhurantaka) set his mind upon conquering the country called after him.

(V. 95.) Excepting, Paramesvara (Siva) who else in this (world) could even contemplate in his mind to humiliate that country which is protected by the glory of (Bhargava) the crest-jewel of the Bhrigu-race and which since then (i.e., the time of Bhargava) has not been injured by enemies ?

(V. 96.) Madhurantaka fearlessly crossed the Sahya (mountain) (and) immediately attacked the lord of the Kerala (country) together with his forces.  Then a fierce battle took place which wrought ruin upon (several) kings.

(V. 97.) Having conquered the Kerala king and having annihilated the country protected by the austerities of the chief of the Bhrigus, that prince, the abode of prosperity, turned towards his own capital (which looked) as it (it were) dancing (in joy) with (its upraised) hands, viz., brilliant fluttering flag-cloths and whispering welcome by (its) sweetly (jingling) waist-belts of (damsels) with unsteady eyes.

(V. 98.) Then the great king, a light in the lineage of Sibi, started for the conquest of the region of Vaisravana (Kubera) (i.e., the North), of which the triple (ash) mark (on the forehead) is the silver mountain (and) where Siva is residing on the Kailasa (mountain).

(V. 99.) Having appointed his own son the glorious Chola-Pandya to protect the western country, he the very god of Death (Kala) to the Tail-family (i.e., the Western Chalukyas) entered (the town of) Kanchi, which was like the waist-band (kanchi) of the goddess-earth.

(V. 100.) Observing that the lord of the Chalukyas, king Jayasimha was the seat of the (sinful) Kali (-age), Rajendra-Chola —  himself the destroyer of the Kali (age) —  started first to conquer him (i.e., Jayasimha) alone.

(V. 101.) It may be no wonder that the fire of his anger burst into a flame as it came into contact with the descendant of Taila.  This is (more) strange that it consumed the enemy-fuel, having crossed the great waters of the ocean.

(V. 102.) While this king with anger was engaged in vanquishing Jayasimharaja, very strangely (indeed), the fire of grief of the Ratta ladies burst into a flame, washed by the tears (trickling) from (their) eyes.

(V. 103.) The sides of the ample breasts of the ladies of the Ratta king who was cut to pieces by his fierce General, (though rendered) destitute of ornaments (on account of their widowhood) (nevertheless) became brilliant and beautiful as before with shining pearls, viz., the drops of their tears.

(V. 104.) The forces of Cholendrasimha and Jayasimha fought an intensive battle, each (side) kindling the anger of the other, wherein the fire generated by the tusks of huge infuriated elephants dashing (against each other), burnt all the banners.

(V. 105.) That lord of Rattarashtra (i.e., Jayasimha) in order to escape from the fire of the terrible rage of the ornament of the Solar race (i.e., Rajendra-Chola) took to his heels with fear, abandoning all (his) family riches and reputation.

(V. 106.) Afraid to the anger of the ornament of the Valabha race (i.e., of Rajendra-Chola) to whom fame was dear, the rest of the enemy’s forces quickly sought refuge in forests and mountain-caves as did (also) the dust (raised by) his (i.e., Rajendra-Chola’s) (pursuing) army.

(V. 107.) The army of Rattaraja hemmed in on all sides by the continuous downpour of arrows, (and) beleaguered by the heroes in the army of the ornament of the Solar race, was (completely) destroyed just as a range of clouds tossed about by the force of furious winds.

(V. 108.) Having defeated Rattaraja with (his) forces, the son of Rajaraja, well-versed in polity and attended by all his numerous virtues such as courage, prowess and victory, got (back) to (his) (capital) town.

(V. 109.) This light of the Solar race, laughing at Bhagiratha who had brought down the Ganga (to the earth from heaven) by the power of (his) austerities, wished to sanctify his own country with the waters of the Ganga (i.e., the river Ganges) carried thither through the strength of (his) arm.

(V. 110.) Accordingly (he) ordered the commander of the army who had powerful battalions (under his control), who was the resort of heroism (and) the foremost of diplomats, — to subdue the enemy kings occupying (the country on) the banks of that (river).

(V. 111).  Before him, as from the slopes of the Himalayas, marched a very large army like the tremendous volume of the waters of the Ganga with wavy rows of moving horses, causing all the quarters to resound with its confused clamour.

(V. 112.) The van of his army crossed the rivers by way of bridges formed by herds of elephants.  The rest of the army (crossed the same) on foot, (because) the waters in the meantime had dried up being used by elephants, horses and men.

(V. 113.) The soldiers of Vikrama-Chola having reached the points of the compass (first) by the dust raised by crowds of elephants, horses and foot-men, quickly entered (next) the country of hostile kings.

(V. 114.) That general of the ornament of the Solar race first conquered Indraratha (and) captured the country of that jewel of the Lunar race to meet him (on the battlefield) with very powerful elephants, horses and innumerable foot-soldiers.

(V. 115.) The white parasol of that king, the jewel of the Lunar race, fell (to the ground) its (supporting) staff and top being cut (asunder) in battle by sharp arrows, as if the disc of the moon (fell), distressed by the defeat (of her descendant).

(V. 116.) Then having robbed Ranasura of his prosperity he entered the extensive dominions of Dharmapala.  (And) conquering him too, this General of the king of Sibis (i.e., of Rajendra-Chola) reached the celestial river (Ganga).

(V. 117.) The dandanayaka then immediately got the most sacred waters of that (river) carried to his master Madhurantaka by the subjugated chiefs on the banks of that (Ganga river).

(V. 118.) (Meantime) Rajendra-Chola (himself) with a desire to conquer (enemy kings) reached the river Godavari and by the scented cosmetics on his body (washed away) during a playful bath in the waters (of that river) caused her (i.e., the Godavari river) to be suspected (of enjoyment with a stranger) by the lord of rivers (i.e., the ocean).

(V. 119.) The powerful General had (just then) got the waters of the Ganga carried to his master (Rajendra-Chola), after having defeated Mahipala and having taken possession of his fame, splendour and precious gems.

(V. 120.) The heroic king killed in battle (the lord of) Odda who was carrying on the orders of the king of the Kali (-age), together with (his) younger brother and (his) army and then forcibly took possession of (his) rutting elephants.

(V. 121.) There, the king with his own hand (and) from the (back of the) elephant mounted by himself, killed a mad elephant that ran at him with its trunk raised.

(V. 122.) He (then) entered his own (capital) town, which by its prosperity despised all the merits of the abode of the gods, — his lotus feet (all along) being worshipped by the kings of high birth who had been subdued (by him).

(V. 123.) Having conquered Kataha with (the help of) his valiant forces that had crossed the ocean, (and) having made all kings bow down (before him) this (king) (Rajendra-Chola) protected the whole earth for a long time.

(V. 124.) (This) lord constructed in his own dominions as a pillar of victory (a tank) known by repute as Cholagangam which was composed of the waters of the Ganges.

(V. 125.) This glorious and highly prosperous king Madhurantaka staying in the town called sri-Mudigondacholapura, deputed with pleasure the illustrious and virtuous Jananatha, the son of Rama, in the sixth year (of his reign), (ordering) him to have the prosperous village of Palayur granted to the enemy of(the demon) Andhaka (i.e., Siva)

(V. 126.) Wise men call him (i.e., Jananatha) who was the chief of the learned, a Dhishana (Brihaspati) come down (to the earth) from heaven in order to establish in the world once again the path of righteousness (set up) by him (before), (but) which was (now) tottering under the force of the Kali (-age).

(V. 127.) He was the minister of the glorious (king) Madhurantaka, as Brihaspati (is) of sacra (Indra), the foremost of the learned who directed his intelligence to go always along the path of virtue, who was the crest-jewel of the Chalukyas (Chalukyachudamani), who (like) the rising sun, caused the groups of the lotus (-like) faces of all learned men to bloom (with joy), (and) who was the storehouse of virtues and the birth-place of compassion.

(V. 128.) That son of Rama (i.e., Jananatha) gave this village to the god of gods Sankara, the enemy of the (three) cities, known by name Ammayyappa who had his abode in (the village) called Puranagrama (i.e., Palayanur in Tamil) which was the ornament of Jayangonda-Cholamandala and was situated within (the district) Paschatyagiri.

(V. 130.) The village Simhalantaka-chaturvedimangala formed the boundary of that (village) on the east, south and front.

(V. 131.) (The village) known as Nityavinoda-chaturvedimangala was the boundary of (this) village called Tiruvalangad[u], on its back-side (i.e., west).

(V. 132.) The royaql order (srimukha) was written by Uttamachola-Tamil-adaraiya.  Tirukkalatti Pichcha made the request (vijnapti) in this (grant).  The wise and illustrious Arneri, the son of Mayana, a full-moon(in gladdening) the ocean, viz., the village named Mangalavayil, born of the fourth-caste (chaturthanvaya), which was pure on either side (i.e., both on the paternal and the maternal) did, under order of Jananatha (the rest of) the business, such as, the taking round of the female elephant (karini-bhramana) etc.,

(V. 136.) The learned poet Narayana, son of Sankara (and) a devotee of the Enemy of (the demon) Mura (i.e., Vishnu), composed this grant.

(V. 137.) May Rajendra-Chola be victorious all over the earth, whose many gem (— like) virtues step beyond the bounds of the egg of the three worlds ; (the number of) whose enemies is not sufficiently (large) for the (full) display of (his) splendid heroism ; who (like) an ocean is the birth-place of all innumerable gem (-like) virtues ; for (the grasp of) whose intelligence sciences (as they now exist) are limited (in number) ; who being solicited gives to the crowd of supplicants super-abundant wealth ; and who is the birth-place of prosperity !