I will start with Firishtah, a bit more inaccurate simply because he is not a contemporary. Very rarely, we see Firishtah writing about the defeat of Muslims. Referring to the Battle of Upparapalli, he has simply mentioned that the armies of Warangal seriously mauled the Muslim armies forcing Khilji to send an army to avenge that, that too under one of his best generals, the eunuch Malik Kafur. It is interesting to note that all Muslim authors called Prataparudra of Warangal as Ladder Deo, a corruption of Rudra Deva. May be, Prataprudradeva was too much for them. Looking at Barani’s account, it looks like the name of Orugallu was long established as Warangal, making one think if it is a northern invention(read Devagiri) or if it is a Muslim invention.

A large army had once before been sent to Arangal by way of Bengal, but unable to effect anything, it had returned dilapidated and ruined. In the year A.H. 709 the Emperor sent the Malik Naib with an enormous army on a second expedition to Arangal, but this time by way of Deogir. ‘If Laddar Deo, the ruler of Arangal,’ such were ‘Alauddin’s directions, ‘gives up his treasure, jewels and elephants, and promises to pay an yearly tribute, rest content with it and do not try to conquer the fort of Arangal or the territory of Tilang, Consult Khwaja Haji in the direction of affairs. Do not put the amirs to task for small offences. If a trooper’s horse is killed in battle, stolen by a thief or otherwise disabled, give him a better one in its place.’ The Malik Naib and Khwaja Haji reached Deogir by continuous marches. Ram Deo came out to receive them with many presents and wonderfully fulfilled all the duties of a host. He sent the shopkeepers of his own army to the Malik Naib’s troops and directed them to sell their wares at the Imperial tariff-rates. He personally came to pay his respects before the red canopy every day. When the Malik Naib started from Deogir for Tilang, Ram Deo accompanied him for a few stages; then leaving a part of his horse and foot with the Malik Naib to keep guard over the army and show the way to Tilang, he returned with (the Malik Naib’s) permission. Moreover, he ordered the merchants, raiyats and corn-dealers of his kingdom to continue their duty of carrying grain and all other necessaries to the army and to see to it that the (Delhi) troops were not put to trouble on any account. When the Malik Naib reached the pargana of Indore on the frontier of Tilang, he ordered his troops to kill and plunder without stint. A terror surpassing all description took possession of the inhabitants, and the rais of the surrounding country collected round Laddar Deo from fear of the Muslim army. When the invaders approached, Ladder Deo took refuge in the inner fort of Arangal, which was of stone while the other rais remained in the very extensive outer fort of mud. The Malik Naib invested the fort and closed all exits; but the infidels raised the banner of defence and a great number of men fell every day. After a long time and with great effort, the outer fort was at last conquered and most of the rais and zamindars were captured with their women, children, families and tribes. Laddar Deo was now helpless. He offered three hundred elephants, seven thousand horses, plenty of jewels and cash, and promised to pay an yearly tribute. The Malik Naib (accepted it) and prepared to return. When the news reached the Emperor, drums were beaten in Delhi, the message of victory was read from the pulpits and all the ceremonies of thanks-giving were duly performed. On the Malik Naib’s arrival, ‘Alauddin came out of the City and sat on the Chabutra-i Nasiri near the Badaun Gate, where the Malik Naib pre­sented his spoils and became the object of unprecedented royal favours.

And Barani in his Tariq Firuz Shahi. This is more of a contemporary account.

Next year, in A.H. 709 ‘Alauddin sent the Malik Naib to Arangal with the maliks, amirs and a large army accompanied by the red canopy. ‘Sacrifice your treasure, elephants and horses in capturing the fort of Arangal,’ the Sultan directed him, ‘and try to make up for the loss in future years. Be quick and do not persist in exacting too much. Do not insist on Laddar Deo’s presenting himself before you in person or on bringing him to Delhi for the sake of your fame and honour. Do not remain there long. Be moderate and polite in your dealings with the maliks and amirs. Do not undertake any venture with­out consulting Khwaja Haji and the more important officers. Be kind and gentle to the men and do not show any unnecessary irritation. You are going into a foreign country; it is a long journey from there to Delhi and you should not be guilty of any acts or words which may lead to trouble. Connive at the small speculations and faults of the men. As to the amirs, officers, generals and administrators of the army, do not treat them so mildly as to make them bold and disobedient nor so harshly as to turn them into your enemies. Keep yourself well informed of the good and bad acts of the officers and prohibit the amirs from assembling together and visiting each other’s camps. Apart from gold and silver, do not be harsh in collecting the fifth. If the amirs ask you to leave them a few slaves or horses they have captured, accede to their request. If they ask you for a loan either for themselves or their men, give them the money and take a receipt. And whenever the horse of an amir, officer or trooper is killed in battle, or stolen by a thief, or is otherwise disabled, give him from the royal stable a horse equally good or better; and ask the Khwaja to note down the loss or destruction of every horse in the Diwan-i Arz, for such a record is neces­sary for the purposes of the government.’

The Malik Naib and Khwaja Haji took leave of the Sultan and went to Rabri, a town in the territory of the Malik Naib, where they collected the troops. Then by continuous marches they moved towards Deogir and Arangal. At Chanderi the maliks and amirs of Hindustan joined them with their horse and foot, and a muster of the army was held. The Rai Rayan, Ram Deo, came to the frontier of Deogir to receive the army of Islam with innumerable presents for the Malik Naib and the maliks and amirs. While the army was marching across his kingdom, Ram Deo came and kissed the ground before the red canopy every day, and when it encamped in the suburbs of Deogir, he performed all the duties of a loyal chief. He provided fodder for the Malik Naib and the officers, and supplied the royal (Sultani) factories the material they required. Every day he came with his muqaddams to pay homage to the red canopy. He sent the shopkeepers of Deogir to the army and ordered them to supply everything to the soldiers at a cheap rate. After staying for a few days in the suburbs of Deogir, the army prepared to move. Ram Deo hastily sent his own men with his order to all the towns on the route to Tilang: ‘At all the stages in the Deogir territory up to the frontier of Arangal, they were to keep corn, fodder and all other necessary things in readiness; they were to obey the Malik Naib like the people of Delhi, and would be held responsible if a piece of rope was lost; they were to allow stragglers to pass through their land and look after them till they reached the army.’ He further ordered several Mahratta horsemen and footmen to accompany the army, while he himself went with the Malik Naib for several stages and then took leave and returned. The wise and experienced men of the army appreciated Ram Deo’s loyal obedience and sincerity. ‘Putting noblemen of noble birth at the head of affairs’, they said, ‘bears such fruits as we see in Ram Deo.’

When the Malik Naib reached the frontier of Tilang, he discovered that the towns and villages on his way had been laid waste. Seeing the superiority of the army of Islam, the rais and muqaddams had abandoned their own forts and fled for refuge to the fort of Arangal. The mud-fort of Arangal was very extensive and all the veterans of that region had collected there, while the Rai with his muqaddams, rais and relatives had crept into the inner fort of stone with their elephants and treasures. The Malik Naib sat down to invest the mud-fort. Every day a fierce battle took place between the besiegers and the besieged; maghrabi— stones were shot; and blows were inflicted and received by both parties. After a few days had been spent in this manner, the adventurous and desperate men of the army of Islam planted their scaling ladders and threw up their ropes; then like birds, they flew up to the towers of the fort, the mud of which was harder than stone, and with the blows of their sword, arrow, spear and axe, overpowered the defenders and made themselves masters of the mud-fort. To the garrison within the stone-fort the world now appeared smaller than the eye of an ant. Laddar Deo realized that all was lost and that his stone-fort was in imminent danger. He sent distinguished Brahmans and ambassadors (basiths) to the Malik Naib and asked for terms, promising to give up all the treasure, elephants, horses, jewels and other valuables which he possessed, and to send every year a certain amount of money and a number of elephants to the royal Treasury and stables of Delhi. The Malik Naib gave him terms and refrained from capturing the stone-fort. He took from the Rai the treasure which he (and his ancestors) had been accumulating for years—one hundred elephants, seven thousand horses, a large quantity of jewels and other valuables, and a deed promising money and elephants for future years. Towards the beginning of the year A.H. 710, the Malik Naib turned back from Arangal with his spoils and returned to Delhi by the same route through Deogir, Dhar and Jhaiun. His message of victory had reached the Sultan before him; it was read from the top of the pulpits, and drums were beaten in joy. When the Malik Naib returned ‘Alauddin granted him an audience on the Chautre-i Sultani, in the open country before the Badaun Gate. The gold, jewel, elephants, horses and other valuables brought by the Malik Naib were reviewed by the Sultan, while the people of Delhi enjoyed the display.

Advertisements