The second one is a very powerful piece, though.
Lal Bahadur Shastri’s Broadcast on 13 August 1965
Friends: I want to speak to you to night about the situation in Jammu and Kashmir. The events of the last few days have caused us all deep concern and great anxiety. I would like to tell you first what has actually happened and how things stand today.
About a week ago, the Government received information that armed infiltrators from Pakistan-occupied Kashmir had crossed the ceasefire line in civilian disguise and that they were indulging in sabotage and destruction at a number of places. During these few days, the raiders have attacked strategic places, such as, bridges, police stations and petrol depots and they have obviously acted according to a plan prepared for them by those in Pakistan who are directing these operations. There is no doubt that this is a thinly disguised armed attack on our country organised by Pakistan and it has to be met as such. Our valiant security forces, both Army and Police, are meeting the situation firmly and effectively. Swift action has since been taken to locate infiltrators. Several engagements have occurred at a number of places and heavy casualties have been inflicted. So far, 126 infiltrators have been killed. Our security forces have, also captured 83 officers and men. Other groups have since been surrounded and about to be apprehended. Mopping-up operations are now in progress and Pakistan’s latest attempt at creating dis¬order in Kashmir is being crushed. No quarter will be given to the saboteurs. We have, of course, to be continuously vigilant in Kashmir because the possibility of attempts being made to create further trouble cannot be ruled out.
Pakistan has, on the one hand, sought to deny its complicity and, on the other, she has put herself forward as the chief spokesmen for the infiltrators. The world will recall that Pakistan had created a similar situation in 1947 and then also she had initially pleaded innocence. Later she had to admit that her own regular forces were involved in the fighting.
Pakistan is trying to conjure up the spectre of some people in revolt; she is talking of some revolutionary council and of a lot of other things. All this is a mere figment of Pakistan’s imagination. Pakistani propaganda is blatantly and completely untrue. The people of Jammu and Kashmir have shown remarkable fortitude. They still remember how the Pakistani raiders pillaged and plundered Kashmir on an earlier occasion. There is no revolution in Kashmir, nor is there any revolutionary council. The people of Jammu and Kashmir have, in fact, themselves given the lie to Pakistan’s propaganda.
The more important question before us now is not that of these infiltrators and their activities, because we are quite clear about what to do with them. The real question is that of our relation with Pakistan. In April last, they committed naked aggression on our Kutch border. We acted with great restraint and forbearance despite serious provocation. We left them in no doubt, however, that if they did not vacate the aggression forthwith, we would have to take requisite military steps to get the aggression vacated. Eventually, the Armed Forces of Pakistan had to go back from the Indian soil and it was reasonable to hope that our mutual relations might take a turn for the better.
In this context, it is amazing that Pakistan should have embarked upon yet another adventure. On this occasion, the method adopted and the strategy used show signs of a new tutelage, possibly a new conspiracy. Only one conclusion is now possible and it is this: Pakistan has probably taken a deliberate decision to keep up an atmosphere of tension. Peace apparently does not suit her intentions. We have, therefore to reckon with this situation in a realistic manner. We have to consider how best to deal with the dangers that threaten our country. We have also to state our views categorically so that there are no miscalculations.
If Pakistan has any ideas of annexing any part of our territories by force, she should think afresh. I want to state categorically that force will be met with force and aggressions against us will never be allowed to succeed. I want also to tell our brothers and sisters in Kashmir that the people of the entire country stand solidly with them, ready to make any sacrifice for the defence of our freedom. I know that every young man in our country is prepared today to make even the supreme sacrifice so that India may continue to live with her head aloft and banner high.
When freedom is threatened and territorial integrity is endangered, there is only one duty, the duty to meet the challenge with all our might. We must all fully realise that the country faces its severest trial today. At this hour, across our vast borders are massed forces which threaten our continuance as a free and indepen¬dent country. We have all to stand together firmly and unitedly to make any sacrifice that may be necessary. In normal times, we may well have our individual loyalties— loyalties to policies and pro¬grammes about which there can be genuine differences of opinion amongst different sections and groups. That is an essential part of our democratic set-up. But when our very freedom and sovereignty are threatened, all these loyalties have to be subordinated to that ultimate loyalty—loyalty to the Motherland. I appeal to all my countrymen to ensure that our unity is strengthened and our internal peace and harmony are not disturbed in any manner. Anyone who acts to the contrary will be acting against the interest of the country. I want to make it known that we shall allow no quarter to anyone who indulges in antinational activities.
In another two days, we shall complete 18 years of independence after centuries of foreign rule. Each year shows a thinning out of the generation which strove, struggled and suffered in order that the generations to come may live in freedom. Each year sees a higher proportion of our people for whom foreign rule is something to be read about in history books and not a part and parcel of their own personal experience. This is particularly true of the student community in schools and colleges. They are fortunate that they have lived their lives in freedom; but it would be unfortunate if they take freedom for granted, or forget that eternal vigilance is the price of liberty.
Undoubtedly, we are passing through perilous times. But these are also the times of great opportunities. With unity among ourselves and with faith in our future, we should do all we can do to preserve our freedom and sovereignty and should march ahead con¬fidently towards the attainment of the national objectives which wehave set for ourselves.
Lal Bahadur Shastri’s Broadcast on 23 September 1965 – Cessation of Hostilities
My dear Countrymen: At 3. 30 this morning, hostilities between India and Pakistan which began on August 5 with an invasion by infiltrators, came to an end. The blackout has been lifted. But let us not mistake it for the dawn of peace. Let us analyse the situation in which we are and consider what lies ahead.
The cease-fire, as you know, was put off by 15 hours because Pakistan’s agreement to it was delayed. Although Pakistan’s reply was a belated one, we are nevertheless glad that it did come after all. They wanted the cease-fire no doubt, indeed they needed it, but, as is their practice, they wanted to put up a show of resistance till the very last moment. Even after having informed the Security Council of their acceptance of the cease-fire, and on the eve of its implementation, Pakistan has behaved in a most unworthy and atrocious manner. The bombing of the civilian population in Amritsar in broad daylight must be most strongly condemned. They did it deliberately and caused much loss to life and property.
There is the threat from no less a person than the President of Pakistan and also from his Foreign Minister. Both of them have talked of a wider conflagration in the future. All this shows that Pakistan is still in a bellicose mood. While, we would like to see peace between India and Pakistan—indeed we are anxious to see this achieved—we cannot shut our eyes to the realities. I must state clearly that if Pakistan launches an attack again on the State of Jammu and Kashmir which is an integral part of India, or on any other part of our territories, we shall meet the challenge with full determination and full force. Let there be no miscalculation again. This is our firm policy in regard to the defence of the country and it would be imple¬mented with determination.
While the conflict between the Armed Forces of the two coun¬tries has come to an end, the more important thing for the United Nations and all those who stand for peace is to bring to an end thedeeper conflict between a Theocratic State and a Secular State, between a free democracy and a guided democracy. How can this be brought about? In our view, the only answer lies in peaceful co¬existence. India has stood for the principle of co existence and championed it all over the world. Peaceful co-existence is possible among nations no matter how deep the differences between them, how far apart they are in their political and economic system, no matter how intense the issues that divide them.
Time and again we have declared that we have no quarrel with the people of Pakistan and we wish them well. Even in the fighting that has just ended, all our attacks were directed at the Pakistani war machine. We have not bombed civilians, we have not shelled Lahore, we did not retaliate against air raids from East Pakistan, we have not attacked Karachi, even though most of the aircraft which used to attack our territory had their base there. In contrast, the Pakistanis have chased and shot down an unarmed civilian plane carrying the Chief Minister of Gujarat and his wife. They have dropped bombs on the civilian population in Rajasthan, Gujarat and Punjab.
After having unleashed a pre-planned, massive attack on India, compelling us to take countermeasures, Pakistan has been carrying on deliberately false propaganda that India is out to destroy Pakistan. Nothing can be further removed from the truth. India has no intention whatsoever of destroying Pakistan. It is in fact Pakistan that has acted against India continuously. It is Pakistan that has invaded India three times in 17 years. It is Pakistan that want to destroy our secularism which is the very basis of our State. It is Pakistan that tries to raise the communal bogiey in an attempt to divide our people. It has to be remembered that there are 50 million Muslims in India and they are equal and proud partners in building up a new order in this country. They have fought arm-in-arm with their comrades in the battles against Pakistan and won the highest Military Honours. Pakistan will never be permitted to succeed in its evil designs against India.
The Armed Forces of the country have risen gloriously to the occasion. They have displayed remarkable gallantry and military skill. The brave men of our Army and Air Force have operated as a well co-ordinated team and the officers have actually led the forces in battle on the ground and in the skies. They played with their livescheerfully. Many deeds of heroism have been reported from the battle front. The whole nation is full of warm appreciation and gratitude for our troops. Theirs, however, is a continuous task and I know that they are fully alive to their responsibilities.
I would also like to refer to the men of the armed police force who had to meet the challenge of Pakistani infiltrators and paratroopers. At many places they had to stand shoulder to shoulder with our Armed Forces to fight the invaders. In this task, many of them laid down their lives. But they have succeeded in adding a glorious chapter to the history of the Indian Police.
What has been the greatest source of strength to the Government during this period of trial is the united will of all the people who stood up together to do their duty by the country. India is a vast country with a very large population. Among our people we have many communities. We use different languages in different areas. Each one of us professes the faith of his choice. But all of us constitute a well-knit nation. Of this there has been the clearest possible demonstration during these critical days. Punjab has been in the fore-front. The citizens of Punjab have shown a remarkable courage, sense of discipline and organisation. Their morale has always been very high. The people of other border Areas, particularly those of Rajasthan and Gujarat, have shown great courage and fortitude. I know that among the civilian population, the casualties have been substantial. The sacrifices of our people in these areas will not go in vain. They have stood up for the whole country and all the people feel beholded to them. To the kith and kin of those who fell martyrs for freedom I send our respectful sympathies and condolences. As a Government we will do everything possible to lighten the sorrow of those whom these brave soldiers of freedom have left behind.
The Chinese threat is still with us. They alone know what they intend to do in the future. We have, however, to be prepared to meet the challenge from whichever quarter it comes.
We will have to take a long-term view of measures for Civil Defence. Improvisations at short notice are not good enough and considerable thought will be given to this matter, specially in respect of the border areas. The people can play an important role by volunteering themselves for services in this connection. Their responsehas been commendable. We have been receiving a large number of voluntarycontributions everyday to the Defence Fund. These are most welcome and we greatly appreciate the gesture of the donors.
In the coming days and weeks, we must make a realistic reappraisal of our plans and policies. If the experience of the recent past hold any lesson for us all, it is this: we must endeavour to be as SELF-RELIANT as possible. In the ultimate analysis, it is the strength of the nation itself which matters most and which is our best safeguard. The responsibility for this endeavour lies not on the shoulders of a few, but on each one of you, my brothers and sisters. A democratic society such as ours depends for strength on the voluntary and disciplined efforts of all its citizens. It is a compulsion from within and not from without. So far as I am concerned,I am full, of confidence about the capacity of our people to meet effectively the challenge of peace as we have met the challenge of aggression.
To the many friendly countries who have shown understanding and sympathy, I must express the gratitude of the people of India. It is specially gratifying that almost all the countries of the world, except those who are clear partisans, have recognised that India had to act in the recent hostilities purely in self-defence and to meet a wanton and naked aggression upon her territories. India’s faith in peace is unshakable. With us it is a matter of principle and not of expediency. But adherence to peace does not and cannot mean that we should not take up arms to defend ourselves when attacked.
When Pakistan launched an attack on 5, August 1965, she had done so on the basis of certain assumptions. The first apparently was there would be some sort of an uprising or revolt in Kashmir. The second seems to have been the hope that there might be communal disturbances in India. The biggest blow to Pakistani ambitions was dealt by the brave people of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. They bore the brunt of the first wave of aggression with remarkable unity and fortitude. They gave full co-operation to the State Government so ably led by Sadiq Sahib, the Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, and to the security forces of the country. The second expectation of Pakistan proved to be even more illusory. The Pakistani aggression brought tosurface the latent unity of our country. Our people came forward, all of them, as Indian patriots to fight a foreign challenge.We have to keep up this spirit. Let us not slacken our efforts and activities. We must remain alert and vigilant. All the people of India should be ready and determined to defend their Motherland in any emergency, with all their heart and all their might