Developed from Old Uighur, this script, used as the official by the Mongols held sway from Korea to Burma to Hungary to Syria. Written top to bottom, with characters joined one after another, it is a very beautiful script for a layman to look at. Also, this script gives us a few added advantages – it is a sort of bridge to learn Arabic scripts(since they follow a similar but more complicated pattern, though here it is top to bottom while in Arabic it is right to left), Cyrillic as transliteration and the Chinese scripts through Phags-pa and Hangul.  Mongol script is developed by a Uyghur scribe Tata Tungh captured by Chenghiz Khan in 1204 during his campaign against the Naimans. Uyghur itself is descended from Aramic through Syriac and Sogdian. Also, note that Arabic descended from Aramic through Nabataean.

The script contains 15 consonants n, b, p, x, g, m, l, s, ʃ(sheep [ʃiːp]), t, d, ʧ(bleach [ˈbliːt͡ʃ]), ʤ(jump[ˈd͡ʒʌmp]), j(you [juː]), r and seven vowels a, ə(about [əˈbaʊt]), i, ɔ(not [nɔt]), ʊ(hook [hʊk]), o, u. For non-English characters, a word giving the pronunciation is appended.

Although Mongolian has seven vowels, in a majority of positions the script essentially distinguishes only three vowels: clip_image001, clip_image002, and clip_image003, representing a/ə, i, and ɔ/ʊ/o/u

Plain vowels

n / н

 

Initial

Medial

Final

 

Initial

Medial

Final

1
a
а

clip_image004

clip_image001

clip_image005



clip_image006

1
na
на

clip_image007

clip_image008

clip_image009



clip_image010

2
ə
э

clip_image011

clip_image001



clip_image012

clip_image005



clip_image006



clip_image013

2

нэ

clip_image007

clip_image008

clip_image009



clip_image010

3
i
и

clip_image014

clip_image002



clip_image015

clip_image016

3
ni
ни

clip_image017

clip_image018

clip_image019

4
ɔ
o

clip_image020

clip_image003

clip_image021



clip_image022

4

но

clip_image023

clip_image024

clip_image025

5
ʊ
y

clip_image020

clip_image003

clip_image021



clip_image022

5

нy

clip_image023

clip_image024

clip_image025

6
o
ө

clip_image026

clip_image003



clip_image027

clip_image021



clip_image022



clip_image028

6
no
нө

clip_image029

clip_image024

clip_image025

7
u
ү

clip_image026

clip_image003



clip_image027

clip_image021



clip_image022



clip_image028

7
nu
нү

clip_image029

clip_image024

clip_image025

 

b / б

p / п

 

Initial

Medial

Final

 

Initial

Medial

Final

1
ba
ба

clip_image030

clip_image031

clip_image032

1
pa
па

clip_image033

clip_image034

clip_image035

2

бэ

clip_image030

clip_image031

clip_image032

2

пэ

clip_image033

clip_image034

clip_image035

3
bi
би

clip_image036

clip_image037

clip_image038

3
pi
пи

clip_image039

clip_image040

clip_image041

4

бo

clip_image042

clip_image043

clip_image044

4

по

clip_image045

clip_image046

clip_image048

5

бy

clip_image042

clip_image043

clip_image044

5

пy

clip_image045

clip_image046

clip_image048

6
bo
бө

clip_image049

clip_image043

clip_image044

6
po
пө

clip_image050

clip_image046

clip_image047

7
bu
бү

clip_image049

clip_image043

clip_image044

7
pu
пү

clip_image050

clip_image046

clip_image047

 

x / х

g / ɣ / г

 

Initial

Medial

Final

 

Initial

Medial

Final

1
xa
ха

clip_image051

clip_image052

clip_image053

1
ɣa
га

clip_image054

clip_image056

clip_image058

2

хэ

clip_image059

clip_image060

clip_image061

2

гэ

clip_image059

clip_image060

clip_image061

3
xi
хи

clip_image062

clip_image063

clip_image064

3
gi
ги

clip_image062

clip_image063

clip_image064

4

хo

clip_image065

clip_image066

clip_image067

4
ɣɔ
го

clip_image068

clip_image069

clip_image070

5

хy

clip_image065

clip_image066

clip_image067

5
ɣʊ
гy

clip_image068

clip_image069

clip_image070

6
xo
хө

clip_image071

clip_image072

clip_image073

6
go
гө

clip_image071

clip_image072

clip_image073

7
xu
хү

clip_image071

clip_image072

clip_image073

7
gu
гү

clip_image071

clip_image072

clip_image073

 

m / м

l / л

 

Initial

Medial

Final

 

Initial

Medial

Final

1
ma
ма

clip_image074

clip_image075

clip_image076



clip_image077

1
la
ла

clip_image078

clip_image080

clip_image081



clip_image082

2

мэ

clip_image074

clip_image075

clip_image076



clip_image077

2

лэ

clip_image078

clip_image079

clip_image081



clip_image082

3
mi
ми

clip_image083

clip_image084

clip_image085

3
li
ли

clip_image086

clip_image087

clip_image088

4

мo

clip_image089

clip_image090

clip_image091

4

ло

clip_image092

clip_image094

clip_image095

5

мy

clip_image089

clip_image090

clip_image091

5

лy

clip_image092

clip_image093

clip_image095

6
mo
мө

clip_image096

clip_image090

clip_image091

6
lo
лө

clip_image097

clip_image093

clip_image095

7
mu
мү

clip_image096

clip_image090

clip_image091

7
lu
лү

clip_image097

clip_image093

clip_image095

 

s / с

ʃ / ш

 

Initial

Medial

Final

 

Initial

Medial

Final

1
sa
са

clip_image098

clip_image099

clip_image100

1
ʃa
ша

clip_image101

clip_image102

clip_image103

2

сэ

clip_image098

clip_image099

clip_image100

2
ʃə
шэ

clip_image101

clip_image102

clip_image103

3
si
си

clip_image104

clip_image105

clip_image106

3
ʃi
ши

clip_image107

clip_image108

clip_image109

4

сo

clip_image110

clip_image111

clip_image112

4
ʃɔ
шо

clip_image113

clip_image114

clip_image115

5

сy

clip_image110

clip_image111

clip_image112

5
ʃʊ
шy

clip_image113

clip_image114

clip_image115

6
so
сө

clip_image116

clip_image111

clip_image112

6
ʃo
шө

clip_image117

clip_image114

clip_image115

7
su
сү

clip_image116

clip_image111

clip_image112

7
ʃu
шү

clip_image117

clip_image114

clip_image115

 

t / т

d / д

 

Initial

Medial

Final

 

Initial

Medial

Final

1
ta
та

clip_image118

clip_image119

clip_image120

1
da
да

clip_image118



clip_image121

clip_image119

clip_image120

2

тэ

clip_image118

clip_image119

clip_image120

2

дэ

clip_image118



clip_image121

clip_image119

clip_image120

3
ti
ти

clip_image122

clip_image124

clip_image125

3
di
ди

clip_image122



clip_image126

clip_image123

clip_image125

4

тo

clip_image127

clip_image128

clip_image129

4

до

clip_image130



clip_image131

clip_image128

clip_image129

5

тy

clip_image127

clip_image128

clip_image129

5

дy

clip_image127



clip_image131

clip_image128

clip_image129

6
to
тө

clip_image132

clip_image128

clip_image129

6
do
дө

clip_image132



clip_image133

clip_image128

clip_image129

7
tu
тү

clip_image132

clip_image128

clip_image129

7
du
дү

clip_image132



clip_image133

clip_image128

clip_image129

 

ʧ / ч

ʤ / ж

 

Initial

Medial

Final

 

Initial

Medial

Final

1
ʧa
ча

clip_image134

clip_image135

clip_image136

1
ʤa
жа

clip_image137

clip_image138

clip_image139

2
ʧə
чэ

clip_image134

clip_image135

clip_image136

2
ʤə
жэ

clip_image137

clip_image138

clip_image139

3
ʧi
чи

clip_image140

clip_image141

clip_image142

3
ʤi
жи

clip_image143

clip_image144

clip_image145

4
ʧɔ
чo

clip_image146

clip_image147

clip_image148

4
ʤɔ
жо

clip_image149

clip_image150

clip_image151

5
ʧʊ
чy

clip_image146

clip_image147

clip_image148

5
ʤʊ
жy

clip_image149

clip_image150

clip_image151

6
ʧo
чө

clip_image152

clip_image147

clip_image148

6
ʤo
жө

clip_image153

clip_image150

clip_image151

7
ʧu
чү

clip_image152

clip_image147

clip_image148

7
ʤu
жү

clip_image153

clip_image150

clip_image151

 

j / й

r / р

 

Initial

Medial

Final

 

Initial

Medial

Final

1
ja
я

clip_image154

clip_image155

clip_image157



clip_image158

1
ra
ра

clip_image159

clip_image160

clip_image161



clip_image162

2

е

clip_image154

clip_image155

clip_image156



clip_image158

2

рэ

clip_image159

clip_image160

clip_image161



clip_image162

3
ji
и

clip_image163

clip_image164

clip_image165

3
ri
ри

clip_image166

clip_image167

clip_image168

4

ё

clip_image169

clip_image170

clip_image171

4

ро

clip_image172

clip_image173

clip_image174

5

юу

clip_image169

clip_image170

clip_image171

5

рy

clip_image172

clip_image173

clip_image174

6
jo
ю

clip_image175

clip_image170

clip_image171

6
ro
рө

clip_image176

clip_image173

clip_image174

7
ju
юү

clip_image175

clip_image170

clip_image171

7
ru
рү

clip_image176

clip_image173

clip_image174

 

To extend a word as a dipthong, the following are used –

Classification

Consonant or vowel

Medial (syllable end)

Final (word end)

Hard

b / б

clip_image177

clip_image178

ɣ / г (after masculine/yang vowels)

clip_image179

clip_image180

g / г (after feminine/yin vowels)

clip_image181

clip_image182

r / р

clip_image183

clip_image184

s / с

clip_image185

clip_image186

d / д

clip_image187

clip_image188

Soft

n / н

clip_image189

clip_image190

m / м

clip_image191

clip_image192

l / л

clip_image193

clip_image194

ŋ / н

clip_image195

clip_image196

Vocalic

i / й

clip_image197

clip_image198

ʊ or u / у or ү

clip_image199

clip_image200

(http://www.cjvlang.com/Writing/writmongol/mongolalpha.html)

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