Whether Mahmud of Ghazni was a religious zealot or not, we don’t know, but from the Indian perspective, he did nothing to propagate Islam, but looted the country continually. His credit lies in the fact that he finally broke the resistance in the Himalayas to open the route to India wide open.

First Arabs came to India. They were not able to conquer the hill kingdoms of Kabul and Zabul and left back. Next came the Persian Samnids who succeeded in breaking the Zabul. But, Kabul occupied Zabul lands. Till the days of Jayapaladeva, Kabul Shahis were on the upper hand, supported by the Kashmiris. Slowly, the tide changed. Saffrids were overcome by a local Turkish commander Sabuktigin, whose descendant was Mahmud. He set his capital in Ghazni during the reign of Bhimadeva Shahi and his son, Mahmud finally came through the Kabul resistance.

By the time Mahmud came, the situation was Kabul became a kingdom of the plains centred at Waihind with Kabul/Kapisa becoming a distant province, while the Turks and Kabul Shahi converts came from the hills. This trend is to repeat continually in history – the persons from the hills of Afghanistan almost always won against the opponents of the plains. He was not only successful on the Indian side, but on the other sides. The successes on the other side forced the hand of the Caliph to grant him the title of a Sultan,the first for any Muslim.

Below is the list of the 17 invasions.  But, all these can actually be treated as a fight between two kingdoms, Kabul and Ghazni and not a grand scale attack against India. When the Kabul armies were beaten, they advanced a bit more and plundered. A few supporters of the Shahis like the Chandelas rubbed Ghazni due to which they took the place of the Shahis once the Shahis became inconsequential. Looking at the expeditions, atleast 5 are against the Shahis and 8 against the supporters of the Shahis.

Mistakes may exist and some data needs to be filled in. Any corrections are welcome.

 

Against

 

Indian Kingdom

Ruler

Ghazni

Indians

Comments

Loot

1

1000

Kabul Shahis

 Indian Frontier Towns

Kabul Shahis

Jayapaladeva

x

x

 

500000 dinars

2

1001-1003

Kabul Shahis

Battle of Peshawar

Kabul Shahis

Jayapaladeva

x

x

Jayapaladeva captured and sold as a normal slave, commits suicide out of shame

 

3

1004

Bhatia(Bhera)

 

 

 

x

x

 

 

4

1005-6

Multan

 

Multan

Fateh Daud
Anadapala Januja

x

x

 

 

5

1008

Kabul Shahis

Battle of Waihind

Kabul Shahis

Anandapala

x

x

 

 

1008

Kabul Shahis

Sack of Nagarkot

Kabul Shahis

Anandapala

x

x

 

 

6

1010

Multan

 

Multan

Fateh Daud

x

x

Fateh Daud imprisoned for life in Ghazni

 

7

1011

Plunder of Thanesar

Sack of Thanesar

Delhi

 

x

x

 

 

8

1013

Plunder of Nandana

Battle of Bulnat

Kabul Shahis, Kashmir

Trilochanapala, Sangramaraja

x

x

 

 

9

1014

Kafiristan

 

 

 

x

x

 

 

10

1015

Capture of Lohkot

Sack of Lahore

 

 

x

x

 

 

1015

Capture of Lohkot

Seige of Lohkot

Kashmir

 

x

x

 

 

11

1018

Plunder of Kannauj

Fall of Kannauj

Kannauj

Rajpal Pratihar

x

x

 

 

1018

Plunder of Kannauj

Fall of Meerut

Kannauj

Rajpal Pratihar

x

x

 

 

1018

Plunder of Kannauj

Fall of Baran

 

 

x

x

 

 

1018

Plunder of Kannauj

Fall of Mahaban

 

Kulachand

x

x

 

 

1018

Plunder of Kannauj

Sack of Mathura

 

 

x

x

 

 

1019

Plunder of Kannauj

Battle near Saharanpur

Sharwa

Chand Rai

x

x

 

 

12

1021

Lahore

 

 

 

x

x

Makes Ayaz the king of Lahore

 

13

1021

Chandelas

Invasion of Kannauj

 

 

x

x

The ruler of Kannauj attacked by the Chandelas for surrendering to Ghazni

 

13

1021

Chandelas

Battle with the Chandelas

Chandelas

Vidyadhara
Trilochanapala Januja

x

x

 

 

14

1022

Chandelas

Seige of Gwalior

Kachhapaghatas

Kirtiraja

x

x

 

 

1022

Chandelas

Seige of Kalinjar

Chandelas

Vidyadhara

x

x

Trilochanapala assasinated by his troops

 

15

1023

Kashmir

Siege of Lohkot

 

 

x

x

 

 

16

1024

Vallabhi

Sack of Somnath

 

 

x

x

 

 

17

1026

Jats in Rajasthan

Defeat of the Jats for harrasing his army after the loot of Somnath

 

 

x

x

 

20 million dinars

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