This is the other kingdom which stopped Islam and was the main flag bearer after the fall of Zabul. Only after Kabul was crushed by Mahmud of Ghazni, Islam was able to enter India proper. There is no mention of these rulers in the pages of Indian history and unless the governments sit in some serious research over this, no information will come out.

Their rule existed in Kabul-Kapisa or Koh-e Daman area. The Chinese called the kingdom Tsao chu cha(Jagula) and then Ko-ho-lo-chi(Qarilaci). They say that the dynasty has 60 generations, but the fact would have been that those 60 generations were spread across multiple dynasties who ruled in continual succession. The Kabul Shahis, possibly under the name of Nizuk Dynasty, established at Kapisa, for example, were preceded by the Xingil Dynasty of Gandhara, who in turn were preceded by the White Huns.

Though the contemporary Chinese traveller Huein Tsang and the near contemporary Kalhana wrote that they are Kshatriyas, the west, as usual is not ready to accept the fact and say they are Turks. Al Beruni is the only one who talks regarding dynastic change between the so called Turk Shahis and Brahman Shahis. Many theories were postulated regarding this –

1. Al Beruni confused change of capital and professed religion to change of dynasty as Kalhana, a nearer contemporary, having better information, didn’t talk about any dynastic succession.

2. Both of them were true, but due to the discontent arising out of the defeat by the Arabs under Abdurrahman ibn Samura, the ruling dynasty was replaced by the Turks. Here comes this legend of the first ruler of Barhatakin, who came from Tibet, where he was seen coming after a cave in the presence of people who looked upon him as a “new born baby”, clothed in Turkish dress. People honoured him as a being of miraculous birth, destined to be a king. This may mean that the kingdom was occupied and the royal family massacred. The survivor escaped and stayed obscure for some time. And the dynastic succession Al Beruni was talking about was due to the discontent because of the defeat of Kabul where the king was forced to convert to Islam and which was used by his Prime Minister, Kallar. Another thing to note here is, will the people or the Prime Minister of the country usurp the power and create instability at these testing times when their buffer, Zabul has become extinct and Kabul itself is beaten such badly that the king is forced to convert to Islam?

3. Merger of multiple kingdoms through marital alliances etc. The last ruler of Xingil dynasty, Narendra II may have been peacefully succeeded by the Kapisa rulers, through marital alliance.

The kingdom fought and survived till 1026 when the line was finally extinguished. The sons of the last king Bhimapala, Rudrapal, Diddapal, Kshempala, and Anangpala served as distinguished generals in Kashmir. His later descendants fell out of favour at the royal court and were exiled to the Siwalik Hills, retaining control of the Mandu fort. After a brief period, they rose again to take control of Mathura under Raja Dhrupet Dev in the 12th century before the campaigns of the Ghorid Empire.

This is a confused account of their progeny. It turns clear only from the time of Bhimadeva.

Xingil Dynasty

Narendra II

??

~630

Last Ruler

Nizuk Dynasty

Ho-Hsieh-Chi

625

??

First Ruler

Nizuk Dynasty

Barha Tegin

661

680

First of the Kabul Shahis

Nizuk Dynasty

Wu-san Te Chin Shai(Khurasan Tegin Shahi)

680

739

Abdicated

Nizuk Dynasty

Fu-lin-chi-po(Phrom Kesar)

739

746

 

Nizuk Dynasty

Deva Shahi Khingala or Bo Fuzhun

 

 

 

Nizuk Dynasty

Shahi Javuvlah

 

 

 

Nizuk Dynasty

Lakhana Udayaditya

 

 

 

Nizuk Dynasty

??

 

 

 

Nizuk Dynasty

Lagaturman

 

 

Deposed in palace coup

Brahman Shahis of Kabul

Kallar or Lalliya

~890

895

 

Brahman Shahis of Kabul

Samantadeva or Vakkadeva

895

900

Deposed in palace coup

Brahman Shahis of Kabul

Ashta

900

903

Deposed by Kashmir under general Prabhakaradeva in response to Ashta’s coup

Brahman Shahis of Kabul

Kamalavarman

903

921

 

Brahman Shahis of Kabul

Bhimadeva

921

964

 

Januja Shahis of Kabul

Jayapaladeva

964

1002

Assigned by Bhimadeva as successor

Januja Shahis of Kabul

Anandapala

1002

1011

 

Januja Shahis of Kabul

Trilochanapala

1011

1022

 

Januja Shahis of Kabul

Bhimapala

1022

1026

End of dynasty

Timeline after the fall of Zabul:

661: Kabul raided and plundered for the first time.

671: To counter the Arab troubles, capital moved from Kabul to Udabhandapura

814: The Kabul Shah forced to convert to Islam and pay 1.5 million dirhams

870: The Saffrids under Yuqub bin Laith plunder Kabul, and the king is taken captive. 50 standing statues of gods made of gold and silver are said to have fallen into his hands and were sent to the Caliph in Baghdad and the king forced to convert to Islam.

879: The Shahis retake Kabul from the Saffrids

~900: The Shahis retake Zabul from the Saffrids

~900: Kabul lost again

Sometime after this, Bhimadeva sets up Lawik as the ruler of Zabul.

962: Zabul falls after four months of siege to the Ghaznavids under Alaptagin, Lawik escapes to Kapisa

963: Kabul counter attacks, Zabul falls and the Ghaznavid ruler Abu Ishaq is forced to flee to Bukhara

965: Abu Ishaq regains Kabul

~980: Sabuktagin defeats Kabul, now ruled by Jayapaladeva

1001: Battle of Peshawar, Jayapaladeva defeated by Mahmud of Ghazni

1004: Anandapala defeated by Mahmud of Ghazni.

1010: Battle of Chach, Ghaznavid Phyrric victory

~1025: Battle of Nandana, Kabulshahis win under Bhimapala

By 1026, the kingdom is non-existent and the Shahis become premier nobles of Kashmir.

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