The first Arab raid of Gujarat was in 635 when a naval expedition was sent from Bahrain targeting Bombay area and Broach. The story of serious troubles to Gujarat start only with the fall of Sind in 712.
It is written by the Arab and later Muslim historians that Qasim after the conquest of Sind, sent armies towards Anhilwara, which surrendered. This means everything in Saurashtra, Southern Rajasthan and Kachch came under Arab suzerainity, al beit nominally. After the exit of Qasim, Jayasimha, the son of Dahir bounced back and conquered everything east of Indus. In an act of reconciliation, the Caliph allowed him to rule unmolested.
Abu Junayd became the governor of Sind in 723. In 724, he ordered Jayasimha, now a Muslim convert to pay Jaziya, which he refused as he was a Muslim. When Abu Junayd pressed, he renounced Islam and got ready for war. Abu Junayd cited this as a reason for the conquest – Jayasimha is not a true Muslim, but an oppurtune. When Abu Junayd tried to cross Indus, Jayasimha refused passage citing it’s against what the Caliph offered him.
Jayasimha is killed in battle on Indus and his brother Chach is captured and executed when he tried to present the case before the Caliph against Abu Junayd. After this the invasion was a two fanged approach, where Kangra fell in the first, while in the second, Junaid attacked the Gurjara Confederacy and the Maitrakas on the pretext that they stopped paying tribute to the Arabs. Maru area(Jaisalmer and North Jodhpur) were subdued and so was Barmer, the capital of the Gurjara Confederacy. Areas till Broach, including Cutch and Saurashtra were subdued. The Arab armies then advanced till Ujjain, but were unable to take it. The kingdoms of the Bhattis of Jaisalmer, Gurjaras of Bhillamala(Barmer), Mauryas of Chittor, Guhilots of Mewar, Kachchellas of Kutch, Maitrakas of Saurashtra, Gurjaras of Nandipura were dealt severe blows from which they were not able to recover. A new province was thus created, involving the whole of Gujarat, Southern Rajasthan and Western Malwa. Though the expedition was a success monetarily, it may have consumed a considerable amount of manpower. Junayd was then sent to Samarqand to crush the rebellion there. His ‘victory’ in the Battle of Defile where atleast 20-30000 seasoned Arab troops perished, though a victory, in disaster equalling catastrophe at Marj Ardabil against the Khazars completely overshadowed his spectacular successes in India.
But, within a few years of this, the suzerains of those conquered areas, Pratiharas, Kannauj and Chalukyas pushed back the tide such effectively that the Arabs were left only with Cutch and Sind. The posts were abandoned and they vacated even Sind. They held only Cutch and a few forts in Sind. The Governor Tamim died in the desert. By the time the next governor al-Hakam came in 730, even Cutch was lost.
Having established al-Mahfuza on the outskirts of Brahmanabad, al-Hakam invaded Gujarat proper through Cutch in 731. Though defeated by Jayabhatta IV of Nandipuri near Vallabhi in 735, his advance continued. By 738, the Arabs have plundered Saindhavas of West Kathiawar, Kachchellas of Cutch, Maitrakas of Saurashtra, Chavotakas in South Rajasthan, Mauryas of Chittor and Gurjaras of Bhilamala. But, they were beaten decisively by the son of Chalukya Governor of Lata(Jayasimhavarman, the brother of the Chalukyan Emperor), Avanijanasraya Pulakesi in 738 near Navasari. In recognition of his achievement, he was given the titles ‘Stopper of the Unstoppable'(Anivarttaka-nivartayi) and ‘Refuge of the People of the Earth'(Avanijanasraya) by his suzerain Chalukya Vikramaditya VII. Rashtrakuta Dantidurga is also said to have played a major role in this victory. This is the farthest advance of any Arab army into India. After this, it was just a reversal after reversal for Arabs. Bappa Rawal, after conquering the Mauryas of Chittor, defeated the Arabs. Pratihara Nagabhatta defeated them in Gujarat. Reinforcements, just six hundred, were sent from Syria in 737, but they preferred to fight rebels in Iran than going to India. The small numbers were because of the serious blood letting in Ardabil(~20000), at the Battle of Defile(~25000) and the frustration of continually failing in the Afghan theatre which was conquered only after the Arabs left. al-Hakim was killed in 740 fighting in North Saurashtra. After this, everything, except Sind was lost to Arabs in India. The only change which happened was that the small states of Gujarat were replaced by powerful ones, which consolidated the whole area, thereby blocking the path of Arabs permanently. From then on, the story is of mere naval and border raids till Mahmud of Ghazni, a Turk who came after the end of Arab rule changed the picture completely.