Though Muslims started raiding India from the time of fall of Persia, the first major thrust into India was by Mahmud of Ghazni. He finally destroyed the Kabulshahis and was the first one to lead extensive raids into India successfully. The final blow to Hinduism came in the invasions of Tughluq which destroyed the Hindu kingdoms of the south. There was only token resistance as in the case of Rajputs while the rest went into a shell till that upheaveal in Warangal which sent the Muslims packing back and the rise of Vijayanagar. The below list gives some of the major social changes which happened because of this change.
1. Hindu Dharmasastras were subverted. What was said that anyone opposing Hinduism will be destroyed. Nothing happened to Muslims who destroyed, say, Madurai or Kakatiyas. This reduced the fear of people on god.
2. Nothing happened to Muslim converts while it was espoused that they will be destroyed. What was expected in Somnath was completely different from what happened. This increased conversions aiming at escaping the shackles of Hindu Varnasrama
3. The extravagant Yagas were sidelined by observance of Vratas which ensured that all the four Varnas are knit more closely. Yagas were social and were mainly for the upper three varnas while the Vratas covered all four and Panchamas
4. Advance of Sudras to the ruling elite and relegation of Kshatriyas to agriculture. This may be because the cream of the Kshatriya race was wiped out in the initial wars like the ones for Warangal and there were none powerful left to bounce back.
5. Extended stays at Gurukulas have come to a halt because of the prevailing insecurity. Ability to understand the Sastras took a back seat when compared with governance – administrative and military posts
6. To ensure that the disruption to the daily life is rectified, it’s imperative to learn the Hindu Sastras. So, it’s the age of commentaries – easy way to understand a work.
7. Official patronage increased for vernacular vis-à-vis Sanskrit so that common people will be easily acquainted with the religion and culture