Gandhi on Communal Riots in the Kingdom of Jammu

I seriously don’t get this attitude. What is the reason for this visceral hatred for Maharaja Hari Singh and unconditional love for Sheik Abdullah? Who is Sheik Abdullah? He is no more than a just another who ruled the roads. He neither had presence in Prajamandal nor has he got an official role in negotiations. He was just thrust forward by the vested interests. But, there are some same points, though. And what is this talk about don’t retaliate if you are a Hindu or a Sikh? Not one harsh word against the Muslims – he is pained and saddened by the conduct of the Muslims but he is angry at the Maharaja. The speech, given on 25 Dec 1947 at

You all know something of what is happening in Kashmir. But I want to draw your attention to a proposal about Kashmir. It is being said and also reported in the newspapers that we should invite someone to arbitrate between the Indian Union and Pakistan in the dispute over Kashmir. How can this be? How long can this kind of thing go on? Instead of resulting in a settlement of the dispute, this will merely introduce into it a third party. Can we not settle the issue between ourselves? There is a large preponderance of Muslims in Kashmir. Maybe they are more than 95% . Jammu does not have very many Muslims. I do not know what is the percentage of Muslims in the population but Jammu and Kashmir is one State. It cannot be partitioned. If we start the process of partitioning, where is it going to end? It is enough and more than enough that India has been partitioned into two. If we partition Kashmir,
why not other States?

What is the nature of the dispute in Kashmir? It is said that the raiders are outsiders. They are aggressors and plunderers. But as time passes it looks as if it was not so. I get some Urdu newspapers. I can read Urdu a little myself and others also read them out to me. Today some bits from the Zamindar were read out to me. I know the editor of the Zamindar. He has an unbridled tongue. He has issued an open invitation to all Muslims to muster for an assault on Kashmir. He has heaped abuse on the Dogras and the Sikhs. He calls the raid in Kashmir a jihad. But there is always restraint about a jihad. There is nothing of the kind here. Do they want that Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims should perpetually remain divided? What is our duty if Muslims Start cutting up the Hindus and Sikhs? As I have been telling you every day Hindus and Sikhs must not retaliate.

The simple fact is that Pakistan has invaded Kashmir. Units of the Indian army have gone to Kashmir but not to invade Kashmir. They have been sent on the express invitation of the Maharaja and Sheikh Abdullah. Sheikh Abdullah is the real Maharaja of Kashmir. Muslims in their thousands are devoted to him. He is called the Lion of Kashmir.

One should always admit one’s mistakes. The Hindus and Sikhs of Jammu or those who had gone there from outside killed Muslims there. The Maharaja of Kashmir is responsible for the happenings in his State. It was not Sheikh Abdullah who was
behind these murders. He in fact went to Jammu and tried to reason with the Hindus and Sikhs. He tried to save the lives of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs. The Maharaja of Kashmir is a Dogra Rajput. Abuses have been heaped on him. If he has been at fault he can be removed. One can understand that. But what have the Muslims of Kashmir done? Why is jihad being carried on against them?

I want to say to the Government of Pakistan in all humility that if their claim to being the greatest Islamic power in the world is true, they should make sure that every Hindu and every Sikh in Pakistan is justly treated. They should be protected. But Pakistan presents a different picture. I shall advise Pakistan and India to sit together and decide the matter. If the two are interested in the settlement of the dispute, where is the need for an arbitrator? The Maharaja can step aside and let India and
Pakistan deliberate over the matter. Sheikh Abdullah will of course be there. If they want an arbitrator they can appoint one from among themselves, but it should certainly not be a third power. They may, if they so desire, persuade the Maharaja to step down. After all he is a human being. A large number of Muslims have been killed there and Muslim women have been dishonoured. I met the Maharaja and his Prime Minister. And I told him what I had to say. The Maharaja should clearly say that he is no longer the Ruler, it is the Muslims of Kashmir who are the real rulers and they may do what they like. After the Maharaja and his Prime Minister withdraw themselves only Sheikh Abdullah remains. He can form an interim government and restore law and order. The armies can be withdrawn. If the two countries arrive at a settlement on these lines it will be good for both. It is not that India had invaded a Muslim State or had gone there to help the Maharaja. Our Government is for the people and it is in the interest of the people that we enter into negotiations with the Princes. The Congress Government can take no other course.

I saw a couplet in an Urdu magazine today. It hurt me. I do not remember the words but the substance is this: “Today Somnath is on the tongue of everyone. If the temple is renovated it will have to be avenged. A new Ghaznavi must come from Ghazni to avenge what happened in Junagadh.” It is painful to think that such a thing can issue from the pen of a Muslim. I have said that I must do or die; which means that I shall either bring about Hindu-Muslim amity or lay down my life. This sort of thing cannot affect my resolve. I cannot return evil for evil. I can only return good for evil. I tell you all this so that you may not be taken in by such things. You must not remember the wrong that Ghaznavi did. Muslims should realize and admit the wrongs perpetrated under the Islamic rule. The Hindu and Sikh rulers of Kashmir and Patiala, etc., should also admit the excesses committed in their States. There is nothing to be ashamed of in confessing one’s sins, it only lightens one’s guilt. If Muslims
in the Indian Union teach their children that a Ghaznavi must come to avenge them and destroy the Hindus, who is going to tolerate this? If this mischievous couplet had not been published in an important magazine I would not even have mentioned it.

Complete Works of Mahatma Gandhi Vol 090

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A Few Thoughts Over Aryan Invasion Debate

The question of historicity of Aryan Invasion Theory is coming up too frequently and too many questions are being raised over the historicity of the theory. Below details are from a discussion I recently had over the same.

So, where shall we start over this? Let me take up the discussion under the premise that Aryan Invasion happened. This raises a few questions.

1. Who are those people who migrated from the Central Asian Steppes, just North of Caspian? Where did they come from?

The last ice age, Younger Dryas was over some 11500 years ago. Most of Europe and Asia, with the prominent exception of India was under a thick sheet of ice and it was not conducive enough for a large population. Only after the ice started melting, humanity spread into those areas. There may have been some in those areas before, but the reality is, the numbers are not sufficient enough for a large scale settlement, both due to the paucity of resources and the climatic conditions. Now, the question is, is it possible that those people left India to settle there? Or did they go from somewhere else to settle there?

2. What was happening in the areas which are not under ice sheets?

Hindu scriptures talk of Bhageeratha Prayatnam – bringing of divine Ganga to the earth. Or, can it be simply interpreted as the breaking of a glacier and an uncontrollable torrent of water which calmed down somehow? There is already a mighty river, Saraswati around which a civilization is built. Whether it is linked to Ganga’s birth or due to some other incident, we see that two of the most important tributaries of Saraswati – Sutlej and Yamuna change course – one moving towards Indus and the other towards Ganga. Saraswati slowly started to dry up and the people migrated inwards. Or is it in both the directions?

Notice the below two references.

Rig Veda 6.61
juṣasva naḥ sakhyā veśyā ca mā tvat kṣetrāṇyaraṇāni ghanma ||
Gladly accept our friendship and obedience: let us not go from thee to distant countries.
An indication, people remembered drying up of Saraswati.

Baudhanya Srauta Sutra – 18.44
sāyuṃ cāmāvasuṃ ca janayāṃ cakāra
sā hovācemau bibʰr̥temau sarvam āyur eṣyata iti
prāṅāyuḥ pravavrāja
tasyaite kurupañcālāḥ kāśividehā iti
etadāyavaṃ pravrājam pratyaṅ amāvasus tasyaite gandʰāraya sparśavo ‘rāṭṭā iti tad āmāvasavam
She(Urvasi, along with Pururavas) generated two sons-Ayu and Amavasu. She said, “If you rear them; they shall live the full life.” Ayu moved towards the east. Kuru-Panchala and Kasi-Videha were his regions. This is the realm of Ayu. Amavasu proceeded towards the west. The Gandharis, Sparsus and Arattas were his regions. This is the realm of Amavasu.
One moved towards Kuru-Panchala(Delhi area) and another towards Gandhara(Afghanistan). Where did they separate?

So, here, we have two possibilities of Indians populating the steppes – once after the Younger Dryas and the second time, when Krishna Yajur Veda was being compiled.

So, now, the question becomes who are these people who populated Central Asia instead of did they invade India and topple the existing civilization.

3. Were there any contemporary civilizations to Harappa Civilization?
We know of Ahar Culture, Narmada Valley, Painted Greyware, a primitive culture involving people living in underground burrows in Kashmir. We know for sure that Ahar and IVC interacted with each other and possibly the other civilizations.

4. If there is an invasion, it involves a massive show of force sufficient enough to topple the culture completely. Did this happen only for IVC or for other cultures? If they are, how far did the invasion persist? And if they aren’t how did the other civilizations address the loss of trade? Is it visible in the quality of products from the digs in their area?

So, what is this Aryan Invasion Theory all about?

Aryan Invasion Theory is a theoretical model which explains how India came to what it is. It says that a Central Asian pastoral community called Aryans spread out of Central Asia and one of the main branches toppled the existing civilization in India and took it’s place. Based on this, it is postulated that the Aryans spoke in a language which spread all over the area along with them, and with language families like Dravidian and Mundari being remnants of the older inhabitants of the area. Two major facts stated in support of Aryan Invasion Theory is the word Purandara – destroyer of cities and the use of horse. Purandara is one of the names of the primary god of Aryans – Indra. Because he destroyed cities, it is postulated that Aryans didn’t have any cities. But, Rig Veda talks of Indra’s capital city and other cities. As to horses. The discovery of Sivalik Horse should discount the debate over fast moving cavalry which decimated IVC.

One of the fundamental premises of Aryan Invasion Theory, codified as Mallory’s Exclusion Principle codifies the whole Aryan Invasion Debate. It simply states, Aryan homeland is where there is no other civilization.

What comes out of this is, something which is supposed to be proven becomes a pre-condition. Where do we stand on this issue, then?

There are a few issues with this argument.
1. How many cases do we have, where a pastoral nomadic community supplant a sedentary agricultural and urban civilization?
2. The spread of Aryans is exactly identical to the Turkic Migrations out of Central Asia. Is it possible that the AIT was modelled upon Turkic migrations? Note that Turkic migrations happened due to Xiongnu pressure. What was the trigger point for Aryan Migration?
3. Below is the postulated spread of Aryans based on the spread of the supposed mother language, Proto Indo European.

a. One wave towards Tocharia somewhere in Manchurian area
b. One was towards Greece, which split into Germania and Balkans, going through Europe
c. Another, same area, but through the Caucus
d. One towards India
This raises a few questions.

1. Were there any records of fights between Balkan wave of Aryans and Caucus wave of Aryans?
2. When the Caucus wave of Aryans entered Anatolia bypassing Sumer, why did another wave invade Harappa instead of bypassing Harappa? What reason can be attributed to this?
3. Or did they attack Sumer also? Or rather, is there any record in Sumerian annals of a mass migration dangerously close to their borders?

4. This horse based conquest of Harappa, isn’t it eerily similar to the conquest of Americas? Is it possible that someone applied the American invasion model in Aryan case?
5. If PIE spread all over Asia and Europe, it shouldn’t be tough for us to trace the flow of phonetics. अग्निमीळे पुरोहितं यज्ञस्य देवमृत्विजम् is the first line of Rig Veda. Is it possible to establish the flow of the characters ळ, ऋ through the Aryan Migration routes? Also to note is that ळ is present in Gujarati, which links it directly to IVC geography, which can raise other possibilities.
6. If Aryans are such powerful pastoralists, what exactly happened because of which Aryans were booted out of their homelands and replaced by Uralic language people?
7. What is the literary output of the other Aryan branches? Or, are we saying, Indian branch is the only one which composed some literature?
8. Bows and arrows are painted on 30,000 year old Bhimbetka caves of central India, but Indo European languages other than Indian and Greek have no words for bows and arrows. How does this fit into the grander picture of spread of language and technology?
9. Another hypothesis is that Aryans split into two branches, one veered off towards Iran and another India. Iranian Avestan and Indian Sanskrit are very close languages and both the entities have similar cultures. Paraphrasing,
“However, there are no ancient Zoroastrian texts that refer to their language as “Avestan” In fact no one knew of any original Zoroastrian language of any name, be it Avestan or any other name. In the late 1700s a man called Anquetil du Perron came to India and lived for a few months with Parsi priests in Surat, who taught him what they knew of Zoroastrian chants (gathas) and rituals. Perron also collected some Zoroastrian texts and returned to Europe where he wrote a book in French called “Zend Avesta – Ouvrage du Zoroaster” meaning “Zend Avesta – the work of Zoroaster”. Perron’s work was initially dismissed but 60 years later it was validated and corrected by a man called Eugene Burnouf. To make the corrections Burnouf used a 13th century Sanskrit book by an Indian called Neryosangh Dhaval. That book was a Sanskrit translation of a Pahlavi language version of Zoroastrian holy texts. So whatever is written about the 3000 plus year old “Zend Avesta” is derived from verbal accounts of 17th century Parsi scholars, contemporary texts and a 13th century book that was written in Pahlavi language and translated to Sanskrit. A 3000 year gap between the original language and the translation does not inspire confidence about the linguistic theories regarding the identity of the original Zoroastrian language. And since the main source of reconstruction was from a 1300 AD Sanskrit text they ended up with a language that sounded somewhat like Sanskrit but had some differences such as the sound “sa” being replaced by the sound “ha” and some other changes. Linguists called this language Avestan; claimed that it was spoken 3000 years ago by Zoroastrians and made up a story of how a mother language came from somewhere and split into Avestan that went to Iran and Sanskrit that developed in India”
10. When you place the homeland of Aryans just above the Sumerian civilization, what level of lexical dependence is identified between both the cultures? Anatolian route through the Balkan coast of Black Sea will surely cross the Armenian route of Greek. What do we know of the cross-interactions? Also to note is that the Aryans destroyed IVC when they came across it but didn’t touch Sumerian Civilization when they came across it.
11. Let me try to put this into a contemporary frame of thought. Why do people flock to London or New York today? Because of job opportunities. Is it possible that the Central Asian nomads migrate towards Harappa and so, for menial jobs, which was confused as a mass migration which destroyed the civilization? Also, if you do an excavation in Ilford in London after 1000 years, you will be seeing only Pakistani skeletons. Will you infer that England is a Pakistani city conquered by Caucasoids? After all, cities grew through migrations. However, in the case of AIT, migrating when the economy is flagging makes no sense whatsoever as this times with the global drought of that age. Also to note is the fact that, if this is a migration in place of an invasion, what examples have we got of older civilization collapsing because of migrations, migrations into city states, not closely knit entities like Roman Empire

Some observations.

1. Steppe_EMBA samples have no R or R1a Y-chromosome DNA markers. But they suddenly appear in later samples, Steppe_MLBA and Steppe_LBA, indicating these arrive to the Steppe from somewhere else. Previously it is known that the predominant Indian R1a, R1a-Z93, is different from the European R1a. During the last ice age (about 18,000 years ago), the northern latitudes were all severely cold and bone dry and humans went extinct. This ice age (last glacial maximum, LGM) ended about 13,000 years ago. So if R1a originated in 22,000 and 25,000 years ago, and has survived the ice age, it could have survived only in the tropical Africa, India and South East Asia. It is well known that the R1a lineages are found only in India and Eurasia north and west of India. It is present in East Africa from migration from India.
2. With the aid of Panini’s systematic grammar, an English judge in India Sir William Jones announced in Calcutta-that Sanskrit, Greek and Latin “have sprung from some common source which, perhaps, no longer exists.” This was the seed from which sprang Indo-European comparative grammar, the branch of linguistics that sets forth in all detail the relationship posited by Jones (Emeneau M).

The real question in all this is, when black and white are treated as good and evil in every civilization in the world, why did it become two skin colours and consequently, two races in India? Why did white triumphing over black become white skinned people subjugating black skinned people and not good winning over bad?

Madhura Vijayam – Vijayanagar Conquest of Madurai

The Muslim Conquest of South India led to untold horrors in the area. The bounceback of the Hindus was swift – it’s as if they were surprised at the Muslim attacks and their mode of operation. While the lines were being drawn in the North with Yadava Empire controlled by the Muslims, the Telangana part of Kakatiya became a theatre of regular fight and the rest of Kakatiya Empire and the Hoyasala Empire were taken over by Vijayanagara. The smaller entities were gobbled up in due time. Pandyan Empire was held by the Muslims and was a shielded by petty kingdoms who didn’t have a capability to take it down. It again, fell to Vijayanagara to destroy the Madurai Sultanate. And they did with great success.

The Muslim rule during that age seems to have some common characteristics. The complaints from far and wide are almost always the same. See the ones from Madurai Sultanate –

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In Srirangam, the hoods of Adishehsa protect Lord Ranganatha from falling bricks

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In the other temples, the doors are rotting, grass is sprouting from cracks in the festive halls and the sacred most shrines are crumbling.

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Before, Agraharas were filled with smells of the smoke from sacrifices and the sounds of Vedic chanting, now, they are filled with smell of rotting meat and the drunken roars of the Turks

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In the gardens of Madhura, the coconut groves are cut down, they are replaced by spikes garlanded with hundreds of human heads strung together

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Tamraparni, which used to flow white-yellow with the sandal washed from the bodies of women bathing is now flowing red from the blood of the cows cruelly slaughtered on it’s banks.

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There is a deathly famine in these areas – those who are not killed by the Turks are killed by the famine.

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Vedas don’t exist, there is no rule of law, Dharma disappeared, virtue vanished, Merit has fled and Nobility faded. What is left is the anarchy of Kali Yuga.

These verses are sourced from Gangadevi’s Madhura Vijayam(Rasala translation). This book was discovered only a century ago and is only partly available. This book seems to be the only account of the Madurai campaign available.

Gangadevi was the wife of Kumara Kampana, a son of Bukka Raya and the commander of the Madurai invasion force. The poetry is very simple and the flow is superb, especially where she describes the nature and the amorous acts of Kampana, whom she calls as King.

The story starts, glorifying Bukka Raya, the brother of Harihara and the Emperor of Vijayanagara Empire. Bukkaraya is a great warrior who subdued all the kings. He needed counsel from none and helped renourish the wilting tree of Dharma. His capital city is called Vijaya and is celebrated by poets. Tungabhadra river serves as a moat for the city. It had massive ramparts and mansions white as clouds and was the greatest city of the age.

Devayi was his queen and gave birth to a son. In celebrations, the king released all the women folk of the defeated kings from his prisons. The king felt his son will become a great warrior when he saw him and named him Kampana, meaning the terrible.

Though an introduction was given of the king as a warrior, nothing talks such in the earlier parts – he is a doting father happy that he got a son.

Kampana was tutored in all arts and was married at the right age. The king wanted him to attain fame by worsting all his enemies. He sent his son with a formidable army towards Kanchi. Though he was sent against Kanchi, the real aim was to destroy the Turushka Chieftain. The mandate was to subdue the chieftains before marching on the capital of the Turushka.

Kampana marched the next day, in the direction of Mount Malaya with his army to meet the forces of the Champa(Vira Champaraya was the father of the Sambuvaraya king, Rajanarayana). After a swift but bloody war, the Dravida forces were defeated. Using Champa’s capital city as the base, Kampana laid siege to Rajagambhira mountain where the Dravida king hid. The Dravida king was killed there by Kampana in person and Kampana took control of Tundira Country. Kampana then issued a proclamation declaring that the older system maintained by Champa will be maintained from Kanchi.

The poetry is beautiful and the description of cities and surroundings, superb, especially, the description of the six ṛtus and the amorous antics of the prince. Another highlight is Kampana asking his wife, the author to describe the time.

Though the poem is lost in bits before, what is lost is a beautiful poem, but with no historic value. The pain of loss of historic value will be felt from the eighth Sarga, which deals with the Muslim depredations and the fall of Madhura.

A messenger said explained the travails in that area and exhorted to fight the Muslims. The messenger gives him the royal sword of the Pandyas. Vishwakarma fashioned it for Lord Siva from the elements of weapons of each god to defeat the Danavas. Lord Siva gifted it to the king of Pandyas whose descendants ruled the world. After the Pandya power was extinguished, the sword was presented to Kampa Raya to fulfil Dharma – destroy the Yavana who is as cruel as Kamsa in this Dakshina Madhura.

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Isn’t this identical to the story of Chandrahasa of Ravana?

Also to note is the legend of Chandrahasa. When Madurai fell to the Muslims, the Moolavirat of Sundareshwara was shielded by building a wall before it and placing a dummy Siva Linga before it. The level of blows the dummy one took(below) is seriously sickening.

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Legend says, when this Kampana took Madurai and when the walls were torn apart, it was noticed that the lamps lit before closing the wall are still burning and the flowers offered to Sundareshwara were still fresh after those many years. The Pandyan royal sword, Chandrahasa was placed before the idol, an indication that the Pandyans understood their days are over and surrendered their power to the lord.

So, how do these two narratives match?

Coming back to our story.

Because a part of the document is not available, suddenly, we enter the battlefield at the height of the battle. It looks as if the relief of Srirangam is a parallel operation and this is covered in great detail in Koil Olugu. The below tweet thread gives a decent picture of that theatre.

Kampana is winning in a battle of elephant corps fighting each other when the Yavanadhiraja takes charge personally, wielding a bow.

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But, he understood that after years, victory is not his. First fell his banner. Then, his bow string was cut. In anger the Yavana king unsheathed his sword, only to be beheaded by Kampana. Though his head is lobbed off, his stead started to go forth with the headless king riding it, before stopping. His death meant the end of Muslim rule in the South and end of Muslim rule permanently in that area.

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Kunthap Sukta – Atharva Veda

Misinformation rules the day in this Kali Yuga. Whether it is for good or for bad, the point is, we are seeing misinformation is being spread day in and day out. To achieve what, god only knows.

Now, look at this. Someone shared me reference to Prophet Muhammad in Atharva Veda.

The main points mentioned in the Kuntap Suktas i.e. in Atharvaveda book 20 Hymn 127 verses 1-13 are:

  1. Mantra 1
    He is Narashansah or the praised one (Muhammad). He is Kaurama: the prince of peace or the emigrant, who is safe, even amongst a host of 60,090 enemies.

  2. Mantra 2
    He is a camel-riding Rishi, whose chariot touches the heaven.

  3. Mantra 3
    He is Mamah Rishi who is given a hundred gold coins, ten chaplets (necklaces), three hundred good steeds and ten thousand cows.

  4. Mantra 4
    Vachyesv rebh. ‘Oh! ye who glorifies’.

Technically, this can refer to anyone. Praised one, camel rider, mamah(meaning mine) and not a name, and one who glorifies – these are too generic to be attributed to anyone.

Why was this done, who benefits this is all secondary but the moot question is, what is the origin of this story and when did this linking happen.

The original and Griffith translation of the Sukta below. This one, in reality, glorifies the rule of a king Kaurama.

20.127
इदं जना उप श्रुत नराशंस स्तविष्यते ।
षष्टिं सहस्रा नवतिं च कौरम आ रुशमेषु दद्महे ॥१॥
उष्ट्रा यस्य प्रवाहणो वधूमन्तो द्विर्दश ।
वर्ष्मा रथस्य नि जिहीडते दिव ईषमाणा उपस्पृशः ॥२॥
एष इषाय मामहे शतं निष्कान् दश स्रजः ।
त्रीणि शतान्यर्वतां सहस्रा दश गोनाम् ॥३॥
वच्यस्व रेभ वच्यस्व वृक्षे न पक्वे शकुनः ।
नष्टे जिह्वा चर्चरीति क्षुरो न भुरिजोरिव ॥४॥
प्र रेभासो मनीषा वृषा गाव इवेरते ।
अमोतपुत्रका एषाममोत गा इवासते ॥५॥
प्र रेभ धीं भरस्व गोविदं वसुविदम् ।
देवत्रेमां वाचं स्रीणीहीषुर्नावीरस्तारम् ॥६॥
राज्ञो विश्वजनीनस्य यो देवोमर्त्यामति ।
वैश्वानरस्य सुष्टुतिमा सुनोता परिक्षितः ॥७॥
परिछिन्नः क्षेममकरोत्तम आसनमाचरन् ।
कुलायन् कृण्वन् कौरव्यः पतिर्वदति जायया ॥८॥
कतरत्त आ हराणि दधि मन्थां परि श्रुतम् ।
जायाः पतिं वि पृच्छति राष्ट्रे राज्ञः परिक्षितः ॥९॥
अभीवस्वः प्र जिहीते यवः पक्वः पथो बिलम् ।
जनः स भद्रमेधति राष्ट्रे राज्ञः परिक्षितः ॥१०॥
इन्द्रः कारुमबूबुधदुत्तिष्ठ वि चरा जनम् ।
ममेदुग्रस्य चर्कृधि सर्व इत्ते पृणादरिः ॥११॥
इह गावः प्र जायध्वमिहाश्वा इह पूरुषाः ।
इहो सहस्रदक्षिणोपि पूषा नि षीदति ॥१२॥
नेमा इन्द्र गावो रिषन् मो आसां गोप रीरिषत्।
मासाममित्रयुर्जन इन्द्र मा स्तेन ईशत ॥१३॥
उप नो न रमसि सूक्तेन वचसा वयं भद्रेण वचसा वयम् ।
वनादधिध्वनो गिरो न रिष्येम कदा चन ॥१४॥

1Listen to this, ye men, a laud of glorious bounty shall be sung.
Thousands sixty, and ninety we, O Kaurama, among the Rusamas have received.
2Camels twice-ten that draw the car, with females by their side, he gave.
Fain would the chariot’s top bow down escaping from the stroke of heaven.
3A hundred chains of gold, ten wreaths, upon thee Rishi he bestowed,
And thrice-a-hundred mettled steeds, ten-times-a-thousand cows he gave.
4Glut thee, O Singer, glut thee like a bird on a ripe-fruited tree.
Thy lips and tongue move swiftly like the sharp blades of a pair of shears.
5Quickly and willingly like kine forth come the singers and their hymns:
Their little maidens are at home, at home they wait upon the cows.
6O Singer, bring thou forth the hymn that findeth cattle, findeth wealth.
Even as an archer aims his shaft address this prayer unto the Gods.
7List to Parikshit’s eulogy, the sovran whom all people love,
The King who ruleth over all, excelling mortals as a God.
8’Mounting his throne, Parikshit, best of all, hath given us peace and rest,’
Saith a Kauravya to his wife as he is ordering his house.
9’Which shall I set before thee, curds, gruel of milk, or barley-brew?’
Thus the wife asks her husband in the realm which King Parikshit rules.
10Up as it were to heavenly light springs the ripe corn above the cleft.
Happily thrive the people in the land where King Parikshit reigns.
11Indra hath waked the bard and said, Rise, wander singing here and there.
Praise me, the strong: each pious man will give thee riches in return,
12Here, cows! increase and multiply, here ye, O horses, here, O men.
Here, with a thousand rich rewards, doth Pūshan also seat himself.
13O Indra, let these cows be safe, their master free from injury.
Let not the hostile-hearted or the robber have control of them.
14Oft and again we glorify the hero with our hymn of praise, with prayer, with our auspicious prayer.
Take pleasure in the songs we sing: let evil never fall on us.